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The printing technique used in laser and LED printers and most copy machines. It uses electrostatic charges, dry ink (toner) and light. A selenium-coated, photoconductive drum is positively charged. Using a laser or LEDs, a negative of the image is beamed onto the drum, cancelling the charge and leaving a positively charged replica of the original image.

A negatively charged toner is attracted to the positive image on the drum, and the toner is then attracted to the paper, also positively charged. The final stage is fusing, which uses heat and pressure, pressure alone or light to cause the toner to permanently adhere to the paper.

Xerography Was Introduced in 1948
In 1938, electrophotography was invented by Chester Carlson in Queens, New York, and his first of 28 patents was issued in 1940. By 1947, Haloid Corporation and Batelle Development Corporation were working with Carlson, and xerography became official in 1948. A huge breakthrough, it replaced the messy liquid ink of the duplicating machines of the day with a dry, granular ink. In Greek, xero means "dry," and graphy means "write."

Electrophotographic Process
Electrostatic charges are used to create a charged light image on the drum. The toner is attracted to the drum and then to the paper.

"Painting" the Drum
The laser printer uses a single light directed by moving mirrors, but there are more lenses and parts than are shown here. The LED printer has a stationary array of thousands of tiny LEDs that are selectively beamed onto the drum.

The Model A - 1949
The first Xerox copier was manually operated, but it provided the experience and revenue to develop the automatic, floor-standing Xerox 914 ten years later. The 914 was a huge success. (Image courtesy of Xerox Corporation.)

The 1938 Experiment Replicated in 1965
With india ink, Carlson wrote "10-22-38 ASTORIA" on a glass slide and rubbed a sulphur-covered zinc plate with a handkerchief to apply an electrostatic charge. He put the slide on the plate, exposed it to light with the room dark, removed the slide and sprinkled lycopodium powder on the plate. He gently blew off the loose powder, and what remained was the first electrophotographic copy. After Xerox became successful, Carlson was showered with honors and wealth. At age 62 in 1968, he died of a stroke on a New York street. (Image courtesy of Xerox Corporation.)
References in periodicals archive ?
and peeling (47) the emboss hologram transferring member (20) from the electrophotographic image (10H, W), whereby the corrugation profile of the emboss hologram transferring member is transferred onto the electrophotographic image area.
For creating the experimental samples the developing system of the electrophotographic printing machine HP Indigo TurboStream was used and 135 g/[m.
The non-impact print engine uses an electrophotographic process and features 8 ppm performance and monthly duty cycles of up to 5,000 pages at 300 x 300 dpi.
Productivity of electrophotographic machines is in direct correlation with operation principles of the exposure device (laser head).
By the application of different concentration of ink carrier in liquid ElectroInk, in the process of indirect electrophotographic printing, the number and the size of toner particles on handsheet made from the fibres of the deinking fotation phase can be influenced.
Printers are utilizing the system to produce a wide array of critical applications, and the quality they are able to achieve on the new KODAK DIGIMASTER HD System is outstanding," said Greg Gresock, Kodak's Director of Marketing for Electrophotographic Solutions.
Our research is based on the most complex electrophotographic model, Xeikon DCP32D, whose functioning has been tracked and stored in the database during 12 years.
2004) Electrophotographic printing of part and binder powders, Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol 10, Nos 1, pp 7-13.
New professional papers and software for the professional photography lab market, including media for silver-halide, UV-curable and electrophotographic printing environments.
A new report from market research firm Technavio forecasts the global electrophotographic printing market in the packaging industry to grow at a CAGR of 8.
Single laser beam scanning and electrophotographic printing, at least 20 copies per minute, 600 dpi, at least 20 prints per minute, at least standard 128MB, at least 250 sheets tray, max 1,350/1600 sheets, at least 250 sheets, A4-A3, Standard USB 2.
The belief has been that the takeup or inkjet and/or electrophotographic systems by most printers across Europe would be done at a slow pace.