# electric charge

(redirected from electrostatic charge)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

## electric charge:

see chargecharge,
property of matter that gives rise to all electrical phenomena (see electricity). The basic unit of charge, usually denoted by e, is that on the proton or the electron; that on the proton is designated as positive (+e
..... Click the link for more information.
.

## Electric charge

A basic property of elementary particles of matter. One does not define charge but takes it as a basic experimental quantity and defines other quantities in terms of it.

According to modern atomic theory, the nucleus of an atom has a positive charge because of its protons, and in the normal atom there are enough extranuclear electrons to balance the nuclear charge so that the normal atom as a whole is neutral. Generally, when the word charge is used in electricity, it means the unbalanced charge (excess or deficiency of electrons), so that physically there are enough “nonnormal” atoms to account for the positive charge on a “positively charged body” or enough unneutralized electrons to account for the negative charge on a “negatively charged body."

In line with this usage, the total charge q on a body is the total unbalanced charge possessed by the body. For example, if a sphere has a negative charge of 1 × 10-10 coulomb, it has 6.24 × 108 electrons more than are needed to neutralize its atoms. The coulomb is the unit of charge in the meter-kilogram-second (mks) system of units. See Coulomb's law, Electrical units and standards, Electrostatics

## Electric Charge

the source of an electromagnetic field that is associated with material carriers; an intrinsic characteristic of elementary particles that determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electric charge is one of the basic concepts in the science of electricity. The entirety of electric phenomena is a manifestation of the existence, motion, and interaction of electric charges.

Two distinct kinds of electric charges are differentiated and are conventionally designated as positive and negative; it has been noted that bodies (or particles) with like charges repel one another and those with unlike charges attract one another, a fact first established by C. F. Dufay in 1733–34. The charge of an electrified glass rod was designated positive, and the charge of a resin rod (specifically, an amber rod) was designated negative. In accordance with this assumption, the electric charge of an electron is negative (the Greek word elektron means “amber”).

Electric charges are discrete: there exists a minimal elementary electric charge, of which the charges of all bodies are multiples. The total electric charge of a closed physical system is equal to the algebraic sum of the charges of its constituent elementary particles (for the common macroscopic bodies these particles are protons and electrons). This total charge is rigorously preserved during all interactions and transformations of the particles in the system. The force of interaction between quiescent charged bodies (or particles) obeys Coulomb’s law. The relationship between electric charges and an electromagnetic field is defined by Maxwell’s equations.

In the International System of Units, electric charges are measured in coulombs.

L. I. PONOMAREV

## electric charge

[i¦lek·trik ′chärj]
(electricity)
References in periodicals archive ?
The effective elimination of the negative effects of the electrostatic charge generation relies not only on the selection of a proper countering action (depending on the fluidizing system), but also on its timely application, which explains the necessity for an efficient monitoring method.
We also determined the mineralogical and chemical composition and particle electrostatic charge.
Damp rags or disposable cloths that attract and hold dust with an electrostatic charge (like Swiffer or Grab-it) work much better.
For a truly hair-raising experience, though, Micklavzina brought out the Van de Graaff generator, a large metal sphere that produces an electrostatic charge.
Finally, synthetic filter media have the ability to apply an electrostatic charge, which yields a higher initial efficiency and enhances the filter's capture efficiency, especially in the attraction of smaller diameter particles.
The company said the new version can detect airborne particles as small as one micron, providing data on the amount of dust or smoke, which "can create an electrostatic charge that can damage equipment" according to CTO Mitch Medford.
The new filter is made from 100% synthetic fibers enhanced with an electrostatic charge to increase efficiency on smaller particles, one micron and below, and will not support microbial growth.
Electrostatic charge retained on the surface of a material creates a potential at the surface, which generates electric fields on nearby items.
Since the initial studies in the early 1990s, Mitchell has found that the electrostatic charge shows a strong sterilizing effect on both airborne and surface Salmonella and on other pathogenic bacteria.
Xerography" is a combination of the Greek words meaning "dry" and "write," and photocopiers work by applying dry ink (toner) to areas of a page where a projected image allows less light to weaken its electrostatic charge, then fixing the toner to the page with heat and pressure.
The electrostatic charge applied to the medium increases the filter's initial efficiency, particularly on small particles less than one micron.
The mop comes with either acrylic or nylon mopheads, which are detachable and machine-washable, and the nylon heads create an electrostatic charge in use to better grab and hold dust.

Site: Follow: Share:
Open / Close