In nature, atoms tend to repel each other and it takes an enormous amount of energy to overcome the forces of electrostatic repulsion
. The reason nuclear fusion works in the sun is due to incredibly high temperatures where gases become super-heated plasma.
When polyelectrolytes such as APA is added in low concentration and pH below the dissociation point of the acid group, the electrostatic repulsion
along the polymer length will make the polyelectrolyte charged and stretched.
The adsorption of [H.sup.+] makes the micelles with positive charges and produces the electrostatic repulsion
by the polar groups of the CTBA barrier and steric hindrance.
Nevertheless, the excessive dosage of cationic flocculant would strengthen the electrostatic repulsion
force, thus resulting in a decrease of the E1 removal rate.
On binding with saccharides, the boronic acid moieties become negatively charged, and the polymer chain changes its conformation to an extended state due to intramolecular electrostatic repulsion
between the boronate groups.
Regarding the impact of Alg on the aggregation of the proteins, it should be noted that both albumin and Alg have a net negative charge in the working pH and therefore, there is a preliminary electrostatic repulsion
between them (27, 28).
As the pH value of the medium increases, the carboxylic acid groups become ionized and the electrostatic repulsion
between the molecular chains is predominated, which leads to the network more expanding.
Consideration of amyloid structures suggests that like-charges, replicated along the fibril axis by the intermolecular [beta]-sheet pairing of monomers, should energetically disfavor self-association due to electrostatic repulsion
The basic interactions that compete in the phenomenon of colloidal stability are the short-range, van der Waals attraction, and long-range electrostatic repulsion
. Those are the essential ingredients of the so-called DLVO theory (after Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek), (13) which has met with considerable success.
Most likely, in this pH range macromolecules are straightened by electrostatic repulsion
of ionized carboxyl groups.