According to the results of the experiment, under conditions of low hydrostatic pressure, bubbles can exist both near the electrodes and be formed with time after applying voltage to them due to microcavitation, local overheating of liquid and electrostrictive
The autoadaptive materials, such as magneto-and electrostrictive
solids and magneto- and electrorheological fluids, are the materials that can sense external disturbances and modify their characteristics intentionally to mitigate the effects of the external influence.
With the development of modern precision instruments, piezoelectric, electrostrictive
, magnetostrictive, shape-memory alloy, and electrorheological fluid actuators are most commonly used.
Smart material includes ferroelectric materials (piezoelectric, electrostrictive
, and magnetostrictive), variable rheology materials (electrorheological, magnetorheological), and shape memory alloys.
The induced electrostrictive
volumetric body force [??] can be written as follows :
Their potential to be used as high permittivity dielectrics [1-6], organic ferroelectric memory devices [7, 8], electrostrictive
actuators [9-12], and high energy density capacitors [13-20] has been widely studied over the last few decades.
"Brillouin-Mandelstam scattering, originally discovered in the early 1920s, is the coupling of light waves and sound waves through electrostrictive
optical forces and acousto-optic scattering.
Simplified example of stage--two filter in use Stage 2--Evaluation of Primary Attribute Technical and descriptive information Smart Stimulus Material type Form Factor Strain Piezoelectric Electrical Solid 0.10% Electrostrictive
Solid 0.18% Electro- Magnetic Fluid 0.10% rheological Fluids Magneto- Fluid 0 rheological Fluids CD Ferro- Fluid 0 fluids CO Magnetic Single crystal 10% shape-memory alloy A X B X Technical and descriptive C + D = information A Smart Material Applications Exemplar Displacement Piezoelectric Precision Website, 1 actuators, photograph, key power journal generation article, etc.
Nanoseconds Laser Induced Electrostrictive
 observed a magnetic-field-induced strain of 0.2% in 1996, large field-induced strain of 9.5% has been achieved in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal , which is much greater than those of magnetostrictive, piezoelectric, or electrostrictive
. In addition, the material has a wide bandwidth of strain response, reported to be within kHz range .