where [alpha] [member of][-[pi],[pi]), [beta] [member of][-[pi]/2, [pi]/2), [[alpha].sub.0] [member of] [-[pi],[pi]) and [[beta].sub.0] [member of][-[pi]/2,[pi]/2) represent the average values of azimuth and elevation angles
, respectively, and k is an environmental coefficient which controls the scatterer spread around the mean value.
* generally, for the majority of the analysed cases, received differences are visibly elevation angle
dependent (this applies to almost all GPS and GLONASS dPCC received for both L1 and L2 frequencies).
When estimating the rainfall using the reflectivity of the Doppler radar, it is common to use the echoes on the constant-altitude plan position indicator  at 1.5 km from the sea level or echoes at low elevation angles
This tracking error transmission (i.e., tracking error of the EATD transmitted to dish concentrator) is related to the working elevation angle
[beta] of the dish concentrator.
Zoltowski, "Near-field/ far-field azimuth and elevation angle
estimation using a single vector-hydrophone," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol.
where [[theta].sub.s] is the squint angle of the monopulse beam, [[theta].sub.el] and [[theta].sub.az] are the differences of elevation angles
and azimuth angles between the tracking axis and target, respectively, and [[theta].sub.A] is the angle difference between the beam maximum of quadrant 1 and target.
In postdeployment data analysis of IOP9, ERAU C-BREESE students calculated the heights of each WSR-88D and various DOW-6 elevation angle
which is dependent on the elevation angle
[phi] and azimuth angle .[theta] The diffuse-field transmission coefficient is finally calculated by integrating [tau] ([theta], [phi]) over [theta] and [phi]:
The analysis of measurement results shows that small-scale fading has high dependency on the flying height instead of the elevation angle
or the distance.
[mathematical expression not reproducible]: The elevation angle
rate and pitch angle rate, respectively (rad/s)
The Azimuth angle, [theta], was measured on the plane of the microphones, while the elevation angle
, is measured with respect to its plane
Now let us consider AYthresh, which is the threshold value of elevation angle