121) White workers had more opportunity to exercise electoral power, but Hoffman contends that white workers who won office tended to be the most conservative, aligned themselves politically with elites
, and eschewed working-class politics.
Some identify elites
who appear to be modern but not democratic.
Rael's point here is profoundly important: From at least the 1780s to the early 1800s, white and black elites
engaged in open debates about the meaning of the country and the public that constituted it.
One need not multiply examples to show that civilization--especially modern civilization-relies heavily on expertise, which is translated into the functions of specific elites
in various and diverse spheres of human needs and activity.
From these names he generates a list of 417 lineages, which he subdivides into an inner elite
of 110 consisting of those represented by four or more names in the catasti (which includes nearly all the families who had been members of the priorate more than 25 times), and two lower elites
distinguished by a reduced number of appearances in catasti and the priorate.
Burnard thus puts these 461 exemplar elites
in circulation with their society and finds them to be relentlessly local in their sensibilities and interested primarily in perpetuating their comfortable status.
The administrative elite
is defined here as the provincial elites
, especially those from the Sahel, who in the 1930s took over national leadership in Tunisia from the traditional elites
in urban areas.
Cuzco is also located in the most heavily Indian portion of the country; the local elites
have had to justify their place within the national hierarchy in competition with other regional elites
while taking into account an indigenous heritage that people of coastal Peru despised.
When asked why he is the best model of leadership, elites
most often say it is his ability to cooperate with other leaders in Latin America and beyond (40%).
As racism grew significantly in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, black elites
realized that assimilation was less likely and that their fate "was inextricably tied to that of the entire race.
There was steady renovation and incorporation of new elites
, but the latter tended to come particularly from the middle and lower ranks of the aristocracy of northern Spain (and notably Navarre and the Basque Country), and was rapidly and fairly completely absorbed into the traditional elite
culture and its functional mores.
Because most of the previous studies of Victorian urban elites
have focused on either mercantile cities such as Bristol, Cardiff, and London, or on northern commercial and industrial towns such as "Brum" itself.