bark

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bark,

outer covering of the stem of woody plants, composed of waterproof cork cells protecting a layer of food-conducting tissue—the phloem or inner bark (also called bast). As the woody stem increases in size (see cambiumcambium
, thin layer of generative tissue lying between the bark and the wood of a stem, most active in woody plants. The cambium produces new layers of phloem on the outside and of xylem (wood) on the inside, thus increasing the diameter of the stem.
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), the outer bark of inelastic dead cork cells gives way in patterns characteristic of the species: it may split to form grooves; shred, as in the cedar; or peel off, as in the sycamore or the shagbark hickory. A layer of reproductive cells called the cork cambium produces new cork cells to replace or reinforce the old. The cork of commerce is the carefully harvested outer bark of the cork oak (Quercus suber), a native of S Europe. The phloem (see stemstem,
supporting structure of a plant, serving also to conduct and to store food materials. The stems of herbaceous and of woody plants differ: those of herbaceous plants are usually green and pliant and are covered by a thin epidermis instead of by the bark of woody plants.
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) conducts sap downward from the leaves to be used for storage and to nourish other plant parts. "Girdling" a tree, i.e., cutting through the phloem tubes, results in starvation of the roots and, ultimately, death of the tree; trees are sometimes girdled by animals that eat bark. The fiber cells that strengthen and protect the phloem ducts are a source of such textile fibers as hemp, flax, and jute; various barks supply tannin, cork (see cork oakcork oak,
name for an evergreen species of the oak genus (Quercus) of the family Fagaceae (beech family). The cork oak (Q. suber) is native to the Mediterranean region, where most of the world's commercial supply of cork is obtained.
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), dyes, flavorings (e.g., cinnamon), and drugs (e.g., quinine). The outer bark of the paper birch was used by Native Americans to make baskets and canoes.

bark

or

barque

(both: bärk), sailing vessel with three masts, of which the mainmast and the foremast are square-rigged while the mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged. Although the word was once used to mean any small boat, later barks were sometimes quite large (up to 6,000 tons). In addition to the standard three-masted bark there are also four-masted barks (fore-and-aft-rigged on the aftermast) and barkentines, or three-masted vessels with the foremast square-rigged and the other masts fore-and-aft-rigged. Large numbers of barks were employed in carrying wheat from Australia to England before World War I; and in 1926 the bark Beatrice sailed from Fremantle, Western Australia, to London in 86 days.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

bark

[bärk]
(botany)
The tissues external to the cambium in a stem or root.
(metallurgy)
The decarburized layer formed beneath the scale on the surface of steel heated in air.
(naval architecture)
A three-masted sailing ship whose foremast and mainmast are square-rigged and whose mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

bark

The protective outer layer of a tree, composed of inner, conductive cells and outer corklike tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

bark

1. a protective layer of dead corky cells on the outside of the stems of woody plants
2. an informal name for cinchona
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Slippery elm bark, discussed as an ingredient in other remedies aforementioned, acts as a demulcent and an emollient that is soothing to the alimentary canal.
Biology of the invasive banded elm bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the western United States.
Colonial settlers adopted powdered slippery elm bark both for medicinal purposes and as a food during times of scarcity.
Colonial-era settlers adopted powdered slippery elm bark both for medicinal purposes and as a food during times of scarcity.
of not one but two pests: the European elm bark beetle and Dutch elm disease, a fungus vectored by this bark beetle.
Among the species are emerald ash borer, European Sirex woodwasp, Asian ambrosia beetle, two species of longhorned beetles from China, banded elm bark beetle, and Cydella (Tortricidae) and Chlorophorus (Cerambycidae) from Indian pine cones.
Among these chemicals, they identified four terpene compounds that could elicit neural responses in the antennae of the elm bark beetle (Hylurgopinus 7utfipes), which is native to North America and is one of the insects that gives the fungus a lift from tree to tree.
I put my husband on red clover blossom capsules, slippery elm bark, white oak bark, some Echinacea and other herbs.
Slippery elm lozenges and Throat Coat, a tea containing slippery elm bark, are available at health food stores.
Also herbs such as slippery elm bark and psyllium husks are gentle and help keep the bowel moving.
That fungus spread from diseased to healthy trees by natural root grafts and overland by the European elm bark beetle.
For a sore throat Slippery elm and marshmallow give relief - try FSC Slippery Elm Bark (pounds 3.49 for 30 tablets).