The combined 2007-2008 live birth rate per egg retrieval in women aged 42 years or less with a known indication for PGD was 32% in those who underwent embryo biopsy
for genetic diagnosis, 34% for elective sex selection, 27% in women who had PGD for aneuploidy screening, just under 25% for those with embryo biopsy
In an animal model, embryo biopsy
has potential applications in sex determination, identification of genetic markers linked to economic trait loci, mitochondrial genome analysis, paternity identifycation, and prenatal diagnosis of genetic abnormalities and diseases (1-3).
This essay addresses three specific biotechnologies that make personhood an urgent issue for early human embryos: 1) the derivation of human embryonic stem cells from 5-day old embryos, 2) therapeutic cloning, and 3) pre-implantation embryo biopsy
involves the testing of fertilized human eggs to check whether hereditary ailments are carried in the genes following fertilization procedures.
The facility includes a comprehensive assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory, providing the ability to undertake highly complex procedures with techniques such as ICSI, assisted hatching and embryo biopsy
Currently, embryo biopsy
and comprehensive chromosome screening adds an additional cost to the IVF cycle," he said.
Although two studies published in Nature have provided proof of principle for two of the President's Council's suggested alternative sources--namely, live embryo biopsy
and bioengineered embryo-like artifacts--it is still too early to conclude that human pluripotent stem cells can be derived from either of these methods.
The ethics panel of the Kagoshima University medical school in Kyushu gave conditional approval to embryo biopsy
in order to check for hereditary diseases in human eggs fertilized in vitro.
The NIH plan calls for "aggressively pursuing an assessment of the potential of alternative sources of pluripotent stem cell lines, including altered nuclear transfer; single cell embryo biopsy
, and reprogramming, or dedifferentiation of somatic cells, such as skin cells.
If both parents tests show they are carriers of certain recessive genes, they can undergo IVF, an embryo biopsy
and microarray pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).
The risks of embryo biopsy
could reduce the likelihood that IVF would succeed.
Research has shown the ZILOS-tk[R] to be beneficial to the IVF clinic in terms of embryo safety, procedure speed, and simplification of the embryo biopsy