embryo screening

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embryo screening

embryo screening, procedure (see genetic testing) in which a single cell is removed from an embryo two or three days after it has been conceived through in vitro fertilization and tested for genetic abnormalities. At this stage the embryo consists of about eight genetically identical cells. The embryo itself is unaffected and continues to grow while the selected cell's genes are replicated and tested for genetic defects. Embryo screening, also known as embryo biopsy, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and preimplantation genetic screening, permits genetic testing to occur before an embryo is implanted into the womb. Such procedures are used when an inheritable disease or a genetic predisposition to a disease is carried by or exhibited in one or both parents. The techniques have also been used to improve the success of in vitro fertilization in general by determining if an embryo has any abnormalities that might lead to a miscarriage after the embryo is implanted.

Embryo screening has been used successfully to screen for such diseases as cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs as well as for genes that predispose a person to breast or colon cancer. The procedure can also be used to determine the gender of the embryo. Given this ability, X-chromosome-linked diseases that manifest only in males (hemophilia, for example) can be “screened” by implanting only female embryos (which will carry but will not develop the disease). Another variation that involves examining the sample to make sure it has the correct number of chromosomes is used for women over 35 (women past that age being statistically more likely to give birth to babies with Down syndrome and other chromosomal defects). Embryo screening has also been used to select a child who is a compatible donor for a sibling with a life-threatening disease such as certain anemias and leukemias.

See also amniocentesis; birth defects; chorionic villus sampling.

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References in periodicals archive ?
However, increasing the number of embryos in techniques such as FISH and CGH array will reduce the cost of screening and increase the chance to find an euploid embryo, but at recent, the cost of NGS of each embryo is independent and finding euploid embryo among low number of embryos at one cycle will reduce the cost of further embryo screening and further IVF cycles.
26 ( ANI ): A new research has found that a majority of IVF parents undergoing embryo screening are choosing girls over boys in order to decrease the child's risk of autism, as male babies are about 4 times likely as girls to develop the medical condition.
With the availability of preimplantation screening, many patients prefer embryo screening over amniocentesis or intrapartum screening, avoiding the possibility of a difficult decision or a second trimester termination in the event of an abnormality.
The method has started being used in genetic research and diagnostics, but not yet in embryo screening, according to Wells.
Overall, 68% of oncologists agreed that "some patients with certain cancers, e.g., hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, should be informed about preimplantation genetic diagnosis," also known as embryo screening, the investigators said.
Embryo screening to prevent inherited diseases is unaffected by the guidance.
will investigate the implications of proposals to make it illegal for parents undergoing embryo screening to choose an embryo with an abnormality if healthy embryos exist.
The newBill, set to replace the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, includes a clause which could make it illegal for parents undergoing embryo screening to choose an embryo with an abnormality if healthy embryos exist.
She and hubby Tim are remortgaging their home in order to pay for an embryo screening test that could prevent her from enduring another miscarriage.
The embryo screening advance - pre-implantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) -looks for chromosomal "markers" in DNA.