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The formation of an embryo from a fertilized ovum, or zygote. Development begins when the zygote, originating from the fusion of male and female gametes, enters a period of cellular proliferation, or cleavage. Cells of the embryo subsequently give rise to the tissues and organs of the body in a temporal and spatial pattern that creates a functional, multicellular organism.

Following cleavage, the cells of the animal embryo rearrange into three germ layers: an outer ectoderm, a middle mesoderm, and an inner endoderm. Cells, responding to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, eventually segregate from the germ layers and organize into the rudiments of the tissues and organs of the body. These rudiments alter the size and the shape of the embryo, endowing the body with its axial symmetry. Cellular growth and differentiation are the principal processes that transform the rudiments into functional tissues and organs. Once the organs and organ systems are formed, further development consists primarily of growth. See Germ layers

Major features of embryogenesis in flowering plants include the formation of root and shoot apical meristems; differentiation of primary vascular tissue; the transition from a heterotrophic zygote to an embryo capable of independent growth and development; and preparations for desiccation, dormancy, and germination. See Apical meristem, Cell differentiation, Developmental biology, Embryology, Embryonic differentiation, Embryonic induction


The formation and development of an embryo from an egg.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, the only treatments that induced somatic embryogenesis in immature seeds of guavas cv.
It is paramount that the fundamental concepts of human fertilization and embryogenesis be clearly understood and applied to the new technologies of assisted reproduction.
High-frequency somatic embryogenesis from quiescent seed cotyledons of Cucumis melo cotyledons.
SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN (Anthurium andraeanum Lind.
As has been confirmed in laboratory experiments, in the natural environment there are many factors, including temperature, which can disturb animal embryogenesis (Itow and Sekiguchi, 1979, 1980; Itow, 1980, 1982; Buczek, 2000).
Effect of pretreatment on embryogenesis of isolated microspores in Raphanussativus L.
That substantial population of somatic embryos can be raised in a small volume of liquid medium offers the distinct possibility that somatic embryogenesis can be used for large scale clonal propagation.
February 14, 2017 -- Regenerative medicine company Minerva Biotechnologies has launched a cell culture system that uses a newly-discovered growth factor expressed only in the naive cells of the inner cell mass during the earliest days of embryogenesis.
We're working on ways to evaluate the impact of all these edits and basically trying to establish embryogenesis [developing an embryo] in the lab,' Professor Church disclosed.
One hypothesis is that cryptorchidism is not merely incomplete descent of testes, but rather it reflects a generalised defect in embryogenesis and results in bilateral dysgenetic gonads.
After all, the placental compartment and fetal compartment have the same origin early in embryogenesis, and the placenta is the sole source of nutrients and oxygen for the fetus.
25 mgL-1) to induce somatic embryogenesis (SE) and BAP (0.