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The formation of an embryo from a fertilized ovum, or zygote. Development begins when the zygote, originating from the fusion of male and female gametes, enters a period of cellular proliferation, or cleavage. Cells of the embryo subsequently give rise to the tissues and organs of the body in a temporal and spatial pattern that creates a functional, multicellular organism.

Following cleavage, the cells of the animal embryo rearrange into three germ layers: an outer ectoderm, a middle mesoderm, and an inner endoderm. Cells, responding to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, eventually segregate from the germ layers and organize into the rudiments of the tissues and organs of the body. These rudiments alter the size and the shape of the embryo, endowing the body with its axial symmetry. Cellular growth and differentiation are the principal processes that transform the rudiments into functional tissues and organs. Once the organs and organ systems are formed, further development consists primarily of growth. See Germ layers

Major features of embryogenesis in flowering plants include the formation of root and shoot apical meristems; differentiation of primary vascular tissue; the transition from a heterotrophic zygote to an embryo capable of independent growth and development; and preparations for desiccation, dormancy, and germination. See Apical meristem, Cell differentiation, Developmental biology, Embryology, Embryonic differentiation, Embryonic induction


The formation and development of an embryo from an egg.
References in periodicals archive ?
Potential for callus induction and embryogenic calli: Different mammalian sex hormones and their doses affected percentage (%) of embryogenic calli, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content was measured green colour embryogenic calli in media containing different mammalian sex hormones and their doses at the end of culture duration (80 days) (Fig.
Induction of highly embryogenic calli and plant regeneration in Upland (Gossypium hirsutum L.
Immature embryos are highly regenerative as they contain embryogenic totipotent cells (Zale et al.
In embryogenic callus, a small proportion of cells divided to give rise to an organogenesis (figure 1a, 1b and 1c).
Effect of different concentrations and types of [beta]-lactams on embryogenic and organogenic rates, after three weeks of callus culture on regeneration medium.
The project is intended to improve the potential beneficial effects of an existing wildtype protein that is thought to drive hyaline joint cartilage formation during embryogenic development and is believed to be linked with osteoarthritis.
The goal of the research program, which is planned to run for two years, is to make stronger the potential beneficial effects of an present wildtype protein, which is thought to drive hyaline joint cartilage formation during embryogenic development and seems to be connected with osteoarthritis.
Thyroid deficiency, which can occur by embryogenic effects, leads to limited development of the skeletal, muscle and central nervous systems (MC NABB, 1992).
Efficient procedure for grapevine embryogenic suspension establishment and plant regeneration: role of conditioned medium for cell proliferation.
Embryogenic mechanism responsible for the malformation, diagnostic problems of imaging and the increased risk posed for intraventricular surgical repair of associated defect are discussed here.