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The formation of an embryo from a fertilized ovum, or zygote. Development begins when the zygote, originating from the fusion of male and female gametes, enters a period of cellular proliferation, or cleavage. Cells of the embryo subsequently give rise to the tissues and organs of the body in a temporal and spatial pattern that creates a functional, multicellular organism.

Following cleavage, the cells of the animal embryo rearrange into three germ layers: an outer ectoderm, a middle mesoderm, and an inner endoderm. Cells, responding to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, eventually segregate from the germ layers and organize into the rudiments of the tissues and organs of the body. These rudiments alter the size and the shape of the embryo, endowing the body with its axial symmetry. Cellular growth and differentiation are the principal processes that transform the rudiments into functional tissues and organs. Once the organs and organ systems are formed, further development consists primarily of growth. See Germ layers

Major features of embryogenesis in flowering plants include the formation of root and shoot apical meristems; differentiation of primary vascular tissue; the transition from a heterotrophic zygote to an embryo capable of independent growth and development; and preparations for desiccation, dormancy, and germination. See Apical meristem, Cell differentiation, Developmental biology, Embryology, Embryonic differentiation, Embryonic induction


The formation and development of an embryo from an egg.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, the organogenic and embryogenic abilities on callus vary according to the nature and/or the concentration of phytohormones used.
It is thus clear that the genotype is one of the key factors controlling the embryogenic response of the microspores.
Ozias-Akins successfully transformed peanuts via microprojectile bombardment of somatic embryogenic cultures with Demegen's D4E1 gene.
Taylor, also of Scripps, and his colleagues developed this method of growing cassava from embryogenic calli.
PHOTO : methyl ABA, note embryo germination and lack of embryogenic callus right -- in the
Other research projects will include post-genomic analyses of the homeostasis and regeneration of complex multicellular organisms as well as studies focused on multigenic approaches to identify the molecular mechanisms that control the embryogenic processes of bilateral organisms.
2000) reported that the in vitro plant manipulation system used to obtain embryogenic and morphogenic responses depends on morphologic, genetic, biochemical, cytologic and physiologic factors.
In plant tissue culture, differentiated and mitotically quiescent somatic cells may be induced to recuperate their embryogenic potential and differentiate new viable embryos.
5] A functional classification based upon the embryogenic development has been published by Mastroeni and colleagues.
1999; Chen and Chang, 2001), embryogenic callus of Cymbidium ensifolium var.
Recently, it has been indicated that NO can stimulate cell division and embryogenic cell formation in leaf protoplast-derived cells of alfalfa in the presence of auxin (Otvos et al.