tissue

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tissue,

in biology, aggregation of cells that are similar in form and function and the intercellular substances produced by them. The fundamental tissues in animals are epithelial, nerve, connective, and muscle tissue; blood and lymph are commonly classed separately as vascular tissue. In the higher plants, there are four main types of tissue: (1) meristematic tissue (apical meristem and cambium), composed of cells that grow, divide, and differentiate into all the other cell types; (2) protective tissue (epidermis and cork), composed of thick-walled cells that cover roots, stem, and leaves; (3) fundamental tissues, consisting of cells that make up the bulk of the plant body, including parenchyma (thin-walled cells used for food storage), collenchyma (moderately thick-walled cells used for strength), and sclerenchyma (heavily thick-walled cells used for support in stems and roots); and (4) vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), specialized cells used for conduction. Organs are usually composed of several tissues. In many diseases there are apparent changes in tissue (see pathologypathology,
study of the cause of disease and the modifications in cellular function and changes in cellular structure produced in any cell, organ, or part of the body by disease. The changes in tissue include degeneration, atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and inflammation.
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). Histologyhistology
, study of the groups of specialized cells called tissues that are found in most multicellular plants and animals. Histologists study the organization of tissues at all levels, from the whole organ down to the molecular components of cells.
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 is the study of the structure of tissues.

Tissue

An aggregation of cells more or less similar morphologically and functionally. The animal body is composed of four primary tissues, namely, epithelium, connective tissue (including bone, cartilage, and blood), muscle, and nervous tissue. The process of differentiation and maturation of tissues is called histogenesis. See Histology

Tissue

 

in biology, an aggregation of cells that are similar in origin, structure, and function. Tissues also include intercellular substances and structures that are products of cellular activity.

Animal tissues. Four types of animal tissues have been isolated, corresponding to the body’s principal somatic functions. Epithelial tissue comprises the skin and the membranes of the internal organs; its derivatives perform secretory functions and constitute, for example, the bulk of the liver and pancreas. Connective tissue, including that of the blood, performs nutritive and protective functions. Derivatives of connective tissue—cartilage and bone—comprise the supporting skeletal structure of vertebrates. Muscular tissue performs motor functions, moving the body and producing contractions of the organs. Nerve tissue regulates and coordinates the activity of all tissues, receives signals from the external environment, and determines the body’s respective reactions.

The development of each type of tissue is the result of a specific type of histogenesis occurring during the embryonal period. In many tissues, histogenesis continues in adult life, ensuring the regeneration and sometimes the growth of tissues. The functions specific to a given organ are usually performed by a single type of tissue, or by a number of specialized cells of that tissue. In all organs, different types of tissues interact to promote the nutritive and coordinative functions of the organ. The activity of tissue cells depends on their interrelationship within the tissue, as well as on outside hormonal and neural influences.

In lower organisms the tissues are not as distinctly differentiated as in higher ones. The evolution of organisms led to the specialization of cells and to the mutual interdependence of the cells’ functions and very existence within a system containing different types of tissues. However, by making a model of the cell environment, it is possible to keep cells alive outside the body and to develop tissues through tissue culture, which has become one of the principal methods of studying tissues. Histology is the study of animal tissues.

V. IA. BRODSKII

Plant tissues. The growth of a plant and the development of its internal structure depend on the activity of formative tissue, or meristem, whose derivatives undergo complex structural and functional differentiation when converting to elements of permanent tissues. The classification of permanent tissues is based on morphological, functional, and genetic features; an example is the distinction between parenchyma and prosenchyma. Permanent tissues belong to one of three systems: dermal, conductive, and fundamental (ground). In the ontogenesis of plants, these systems reflect the major stages in the internal differentiation of the plant during the process of evolution.

The most widely accepted physiological classification of plant tissues, that of G. Haberlandt, divides permanent tissues into a number of systems. These include the dermal system, composed of epidermis, cork, and cortex, and the mechanical system, composed of collenchyma (parenchyma cells with walls of irregular thickness) and sclerenchyma (lignified fibers and more or less iso-diametric sclereids). The absorptive system absorbs substances by means of rhizoids and root hairs made of epiblem. In Orchida-ceae, this function is performed by the multilayered epidermis (velamen) of the aerial roots. The assimilatory tissue system consists of parenchyma cells with many chloroplasts, and the conductive system consists of the xylem, which conducts water, and the phloem, which conducts the movement of organic matter. Further tissue systems are the storage system, consisting of parenchyma cells, the secretory system, which includes hydathodes, lati-cifers, and reservoirs for discharged substances, and the aeration system, consisting of intercellular spaces, stomata, and lenticels. All tissues except those of the dermal, conductive, and aeration systems are variants of fundamental (ground) tissue. Plant anatomy is the discipline that studies plant tissues.

REFERENCES

Eames, A. J., and L. H. MacDaniels. Vvedenie v anatomiiu rastenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. (Translated from English.)
Krasheninnikov, F. N. Lektsii po anatomii rastenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Borodin, I. P. Kurs anatomii rastenii, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1938.
Razdorskii, V. F. Anatomiia rastenii. Moscow, 1949.
Iatsenko-Khmelevskii, A. A. Kratkii kurs anatomii rastenii, Moscow, 1961.
Esau, K. Anatomiia rastenii. Moscow, 1969. (Translated from English.)

L. I. LOTOVA

tissue

[′tish·ü]
(histology)
An aggregation of cells more or less similar morphologically and functionally.
(textiles)
A sheer woven fabric or gauze, usually of fine quality.

tissue

1. a part of an organism consisting of a large number of cells having a similar structure and function
2. a woven cloth, esp of a light gauzy nature, originally interwoven with threads of gold or silver
References in periodicals archive ?
The first attempts to restore the striatal dopamine deficiency in Parkinson's disease (PD) by means of cell replacement were performed in 1982 and 1983 using autologous adrenal chromaffine tissue.[3] The fact that patients were their own source of tissue meant that the method was free from ethical concerns associated with use of human embryonic tissue and the risk of immunoreactions, graft rejection, and need for long-term immunosuppressive treatment.
In all mammals mesenchyme eventually differentiates into three embryonic tissues -- the endoderm, the mesoderm, and the ectoderm.
(12.) Regulations regarding the use of human DNA, RNA, cultured cells, stem cells, blastomeres, polar bodies, embryos, embryonic tissue and small tissue biopsies for diagnostic testing, health research and therapeutics (GN R7 of 2007 01 05); and regulations relating to human stem cells (GN R376 in GG 29840 of 2007 05 04) National Health Act (Act No.
Scientists have previously shown that embryonic tissue transplants can be used to grow new kidneys inside rats.
If you didn't understand their real agenda, it would amaze you to know that in the very same time frame there were a series of amazing studies that documented the great promise of sources other than human embryonic tissue - - cloned or otherwise - - in addressing a whole host of medical problems.
In its newly identified function, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRF) stimulates the production of a protein previously found to prevent maternal immune cells from attacking embryonic tissue.
When interviewed by the Senate Committee on 1 March 2000, Professor Alan Trounson stated that he and his team at Monash, having imported the embryonic tissue required for their research from Singapore and successfully derived stem-cell lines from it, would never need to acquire another dissected embryo.
"The blastocyst must be treated with the respect appropriate to early human embryonic tissue."
The capacity of human mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate tissue follows a sequence of events similar to that of embryonic tissue formation.
The team initially noticed that vessel-lining cells called endothelial cells were in close proximity to embryonic tissue that already had begun to express genes known to be active only in the liver.
The EAB states, however, that embryonic tissue is not analogous to other tissue from a person's body and that it may be regarded as "potential progeny." This seems to swing us back toward viewing the embryo as a "person." But the EAB also states that donors should be advised as to whether they have property rights in stem cells derived from their embryos, and this claim suggests the "property" view.