emphysema

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Related to emphysematous: emphysematous cholecystitis, emphysematous cystitis, emphysematous pyelitis

emphysema

(ĕmfĭsē`mə), pathological or physiological enlargement or overdistention of the air sacs of the lungs. A major cause of pulmonary insufficiency in chronic cigarette smokers, emphysema is a progressive disease that commonly occurs in conjunction with chronic bronchitis. It is found predominantly in people over age 45, but a genetically based early-onset form also exists. Symptoms are difficulty in breathing, cough with thick sticky sputum, and a bluish tinge of the skin. Progressive disease can result in disability, and in severe cases heart or respiratory failure and death.

Causes

Cigarette smoking is the cause of most cases of emphysema. Tobacco smoke damages the lungs' alveoli, the tiny air sacs through which inhaled oxygen is transferred to the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is passed back to the lungs to be exhaled. The lungs become less elastic and breathing becomes increasingly difficult. The genetic form of emphysema occurs earlier in life (worsened by, but not dependent upon cigarette smoking). It is caused by a rare genetic deficiency of the protein alpha1-antitrypsin. In the absence of antitrypsin, which normally functions to protect the lungs from damage, the walls of the alveoli are attacked by chemicals released in alveoli in response to tobacco smoke and air pollutants.

Treatment

Emphysematous lung damage is irreversible. Its progression can be slowed by giving up smoking. Treatment is aimed at increasing the functional capacity of the lungs and may include bronchodilators, administration of supplemental oxygen, or lung transplantation. Surgical removal of affected lung tissue (lung volume reduction surgery), aimed at allowing healthy areas of the lung room to function, is being studied for its effectiveness and safety. The genetic form is treated with supplemental antitrypsin administered by infusion or by a gene therapy technique that uses T cells (special immune cells that identify diseased or deformed cells) to deliver it to the desired cell sites.

emphysema

[‚em·fə′sē·mə]
(medicine)
A pulmonary disorder characterized by overdistention and destruction of the air spaces in the lungs.

emphysema

Pathol
1. a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are grossly enlarged, causing breathlessness and wheezing
2. the abnormal presence of air in a tissue or part
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A bladder fungus ball and fungal emphysematous cystitis should always be suspected in patients with diabetes mellitus with uncontrolled funguria and abnormal imaging.
Clinical features and prognostic factors of emphysematous urinary tract infection.
His medical history revealed that he had been in follow-up and on medical treatment for emphysematous pulmonary (panaciner emphysema) disease since childhood.
Long-time scale ADC measurements, which are more sensitive to mild emphysematous changes than are the more conventional short-time scale ADC measurements, also were used, reported Dr.
He had a past history of deep venous thrombosis and emphysematous lung disease.
Another important HRCT finding from this study is the demonstration of emphysematous changes following treatment.
A] of abnormal muscle tissue and connective tissue was ~47% in the ARD and ARD/CRD groups which exceeded values determined from the diaphragm in patients going for thoracotomy (34%), (9) rats tracheal banded between 1 and 4 days (10-20%), (5) emphysematous hamsters (11%), (21) and rabbits 3 days after inspiratory resistive loading (17%).
Neutrophil-associated activation markers in healthy smokers relates to a fall in DL(CO) and to emphysematous changes on high resolution CT.
Diabetic patients may present with infections unique to this population, which include rhinocerebral mucormycosis, emphysematous cholecystitis, malignant otitis externa, and Fournier gangrene.
Computed tomography (CT) of the neck and chest detected emphysematous changes, but no laryngeal, tracheal, or bronchial lesions.
The problem as he saw it was that the emphysematous process, which made the lungs expand increasingly as time went on, increased chest size to its maximum limits, leaving no more space for the patient to breathe.