Methods and tools for statistical analysis included: the use of error bars; grouped frequency distribution; frequency curve; central tendency; dispersion and measures of variation; empirical rule
for normal distribution; and confidence intervals.
In 1888, Giuseppe Peano established the axiomatization of mathematics (an axiom is an empirical rule
established in certain fields, and used without exceptions universally).
Nevertheless, in order for the hypothetical judgment to become a determination of causality qua necessary connection, the conditional relation must be regarded as necessarily and universally valid, as in the judgment, "lightning is the cause of thunder." In this way, Kant affirms that the concept of causality is to be distinguished from the Humean notion of the perceived regularity of accompaniment between like As and Bs, precisely by the appeal to the necessity and universality of the connection between like As and Bs, that is to say, as a law that governs experience, rather than merely as an empirical rule
. However, for Kant, the empirical rule
is not somehow to be divorced from the causal law, at which consciousness aims.
Even so, Kumsa eventually strayed from the faith she had grown up with--influenced by Ethiopia's political situation that was moving from centuries of empirical rule
to a communist regime.
Four techniques are reported in this paper, Hurst's  empirical rule
, Mandelbrot and Wallis's  classic, naive R/S, Mandelbrot's [1972a] AR1 R/S, and Lo's  modified R/S.
However, for 13 stations (23%) the stochastic method solves out the same solutions as the empirical rules
do, and for 7 stations the three methods come to the same results; i.e., empirical method gives identical answer as the stochastic method does in 20 stations (36%).
"We used empirical rules
derived from the 1950s onwards, some latent sense of how these things work and we took a risk," says Allsop.
Except in Euro code 2 (ECS 2004) that a set of more stringent requirements are specified for HSC beams, these empirical rules
are not dependent on concrete and steel yield strength.
NMR spectra can be measured experimentally, calculated using high-level ab initio quantum computations (eg, Bos, et al., 2004) or simulated using empirical rules
(Cheeseman & Frisch, 2000).
"The innovation of this study is trying to stitch together those empirical rules
with the underlying physics and find some sort of generality," Brodsky said.
Several basic empirical rules
are sometimes used to determine if the surge-control system adequately protects the compressor.