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balloon frame wall
cantilever retaining wall
gravity retaining wall
(or longwall), in mining, an underground mine working with a long working face, in which minerals are extracted. Its length may be 25–350 m or more, depending on the mining and geologic conditions and the system of exploitation of the deposit. In the USSR (1971), about 70 percent of the annual coal output is mined by the longwall system. The cutting, loading, and transportation of coal has been fully mechanized in 85 percent of all longwall systems in the USSR (1971). The term “wall” (in Russian, lava) was first used in the mines of the Donbas; it was first used in literature in A. I. Kuprin’s short story “In the Bowels of the Earth” (1899).
the principal enclosing member of a building. Walls not only serve as partitions but also have some load-bearing functions, since they are used as supports that accept vertical and horizontal loads. The major requirements of walls are strength, heat retention, noise insulation, fire resistance, durability, acceptable appearance, and economy.
A distinction is made between exterior and interior walls. According to their structural behavior, exterior walls are classified as (1) bearing walls, which, in addition to their own weight, accept loads from roofs, floors, and wind pressure and transfer these loads to the foundation, (2) shear walls, which rest on the foundation and support the load only of their own weight (throughout the floors of the building) and which are attached to the frame of the building to provide stability, and (3) nonbearing walls (including curtain walls), which support their own weight only within a single floor and transfer the load to the frame or other supporting members of the building.
Interior walls may be bearing or nonbearing. Nonbearing interior walls, or partitions, are designed only to separate rooms from one another; they are installed directly on floors. Ducting and chases for ventilation and gas, water, and plumbing lines are often incorporated in interior walls. Bearing walls, roofs, and floors form a stable three-dimensional system of the frame of a building. In frame structures, shear walls often act as diaphragms to provide lateral support.
Prefabricated, monolithic, and manually raised walls differ in the method used to erect them. Prefabricated walls are assembled from factory-prepared elements. Monolithic walls, usually made of concrete, are cast in place with movable or sliding form-work. Manually raised walls consist of small blocks of some building material set in mortar. Large-block and large-panel prefabricated walls differ in size of their prefabricated elements, the degree of factory prefabrication, and the system used for their sectioning. Single-layer and multilayer walls differ in their structural design.
The choice of materials used for walls depends on climatic conditions, the purpose and required strength of the building, the number of stories, and technical and economic considerations. Bearing walls in multistory buildings are made of brick, ceramic blocks, large blocks of lightweight and cellular concrete, reinforced-concrete panels, and other large-size components. Non-bearing walls must have minimum weight; they are made from multilayer reinforced-concrete panels with efficient thermal insulation and from panels made of especially lightweight concrete and asbestos cement. Wood, silica and unfired brick, slag-concrete and ceramic blocks, and natural stone are used in low-rise buildings.
To a large extent, walls determine the structural design and overall appearance of a building. The wall material used often denotes the building’s architectural and structural classification: large-panel, large-block, brick, log, and frame-panel.
REFERENCESKonstruktsii grazhdanskikh zdanii. Edited by M. S. Tupolev. Moscow, 1968.
Konstruktsii promyshlennykh zdanii. Edited by A. N. Popov. Moscow, 1972.
Z. A. KAZBEK-KAZIEV
What does it mean when you dream about a wall?
Dreaming about a wall could be about our defensiveness, or a dream wall could represent a sense of security. The term “wall” is also central to many idioms, and the dream could be drawing on the meaning of one of these, such as: the “writing on the wall,” “off the wall,” our “back against the wall,” “talking to a brick wall,” or “hitting one’s head against the wall.”