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Related to endoderm: mesoderm


(ĕn`dədûrm'), in biology, inner layer of tissue formed in the gastrula stage of the developing embryo. At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged in the form of a hollow ball. Cell movement results in an invagination of the bottom region, or vegetal hemisphere, of the embryo so that it resembles a double-walled cup. The inner layer of the cup is the endoderm; the outer layer is the ectodermectoderm,
layer of cells that covers the surface of an animal embryo after the process of gastrulation has occurred. This outer layer, together with the endoderm, or inner layer, is present in all early embryos.
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; a middle layer, the mesodermmesoderm,
in biology, middle layer of tissue formed in the gastrula stage of the developing embryo. At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged in the form of a hollow ball.
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, forms from a marginal zone. The endoderm is the germ layer from which are formed the digestive system, many glands, and part of the respiratory system. See embryoembryo
, name for the developing young of an animal or plant. In its widest definition, the embryo is the young from the moment of fertilization until it has become structurally complete and able to survive as a separate organism.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) The internal layer of the embryo of multicellular animals in the gastrular stage (the internal germ layer). In the process of development, the endoderm forms the wall of the archenteron, which forms the mucosa of the entire intestine and the glands connected with the intestinal tract, including the liver and pancreas. In fishes, the endoderm forms the swim bladder and the internal gills, while in higher vertebrates it forms the lungs. In chordates, the endoderm and organs formed from it exert an inductive influence on the development of the chordamesoderm and on certain body parts formed from the ectoderm, including the mouth, anus, gill slits, and external gills. In turn, the endoderm and organs formed from it typically require interaction with materials originating from the ectoderm and mesoderm.

(2) The internal layer of the body wall in coelenterates.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The inner, primary germ layer of an animal embryo; sometimes referred to as the hypoblast. Also known as entoderm; hypoblast.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Unlike earlier fate-mapping studies, Nerurkar and his colleagues used live imaging in the embryo to directly observe cell movements as the endoderm is internalized to form a tube.
[beta]-integrin and E-cadherin cell surface proteins as well as surface lipids have been implicated in migration along the midgut endoderm [50].
Biased cell rotation is seen as a dominant CW bias in day 5 cardiac mesoderm and CCW biases in day 3 endoderm, day 7 mid/hindgut, and day 5 neural induced stages.
The beginning of each treatment should be concerned with the balancing of the embryonic germinal tissue layers such as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, speaking of the colon and internal organs.
At Day 5, upon 3 days' induction in definitive endoderm media, some cells were still actively transcribing OCT4.
It is also one of the main features of the migratory behavior of embryonic cells during gastrulation and expressed by the invasive capacity in a faraway location that will help to form the embryonic endoderm. At the molecular level, common characteristics between certain malignant tumors and developing tissues about the transcription factors activity [60], regulation of chromatin structure [61, 62], and signaling [63] have already been widely documented.
ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, makes it possible to use them as an appropriate source of cells in regenerative medicine.
These transcription factors activate repressed pattern of gene expression like GATA binding transcription factor 4/6 (GATA4/6) and caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX), which mediate phenotypic changes toward endoderm during stem cell differentiation, and repress activated pattern of gene expression for differentiation to mesoderm and ectoderm like T-box transcription factor 3 (TBX3) and estrogen-related receptor beta (ESRRB) (Boyer et al., 2005).
The use of stem cells has many advantages over other cell sources because these unique cells proliferate at a high rate, they are readily available, and they retain the potential to differentiate into derivatives of all three embryonic layers: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm.
(28,58) Nerve cord, notochord, mesenchyme, or endoderm cells are derived from the anterior vegetal cells (Fig.