endoderm

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Related to endodermal: proliferation, Endodermal cells, endodermal cyst, endodermal sinus tumor

endoderm

(ĕn`dədûrm'), in biology, inner layer of tissue formed in the gastrula stage of the developing embryo. At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged in the form of a hollow ball. Cell movement results in an invagination of the bottom region, or vegetal hemisphere, of the embryo so that it resembles a double-walled cup. The inner layer of the cup is the endoderm; the outer layer is the ectodermectoderm,
layer of cells that covers the surface of an animal embryo after the process of gastrulation has occurred. This outer layer, together with the endoderm, or inner layer, is present in all early embryos.
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; a middle layer, the mesodermmesoderm,
in biology, middle layer of tissue formed in the gastrula stage of the developing embryo. At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged in the form of a hollow ball.
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, forms from a marginal zone. The endoderm is the germ layer from which are formed the digestive system, many glands, and part of the respiratory system. See embryoembryo
, name for the developing young of an animal or plant. In its widest definition, the embryo is the young from the moment of fertilization until it has become structurally complete and able to survive as a separate organism.
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Endoderm

 

(1) The internal layer of the embryo of multicellular animals in the gastrular stage (the internal germ layer). In the process of development, the endoderm forms the wall of the archenteron, which forms the mucosa of the entire intestine and the glands connected with the intestinal tract, including the liver and pancreas. In fishes, the endoderm forms the swim bladder and the internal gills, while in higher vertebrates it forms the lungs. In chordates, the endoderm and organs formed from it exert an inductive influence on the development of the chordamesoderm and on certain body parts formed from the ectoderm, including the mouth, anus, gill slits, and external gills. In turn, the endoderm and organs formed from it typically require interaction with materials originating from the ectoderm and mesoderm.

(2) The internal layer of the body wall in coelenterates.

endoderm

[′en·dō‚dərm]
(embryology)
The inner, primary germ layer of an animal embryo; sometimes referred to as the hypoblast. Also known as entoderm; hypoblast.
References in periodicals archive ?
Epitelyal over tumorlerinde CA-125, endodermal sinus tumorunde alfa-fetoprein (AFP), koryokarsinomada [beta]-HCG, disgerminomada laktat dehidrogenaz (LDH), granuloza hucreli tumorlerde inhibin ve Mullerian inhibe edici madde (Mullerian Inhibiting Subtance- MIS), Sertoli-Leydig hucreli tumorlerde testosteron ve gastrointestinal kokenli tumorlerin over metastazi olan Krukenberg tumorunde karsinoembriyonik antijen (CEA) klinik uygulamalarda yerini almistir.
2004a) derived from the ICM of blastocysts and can differentiate in vitro into cells representative of endodermal, neuroectodermal and mesodermal tissues.
It is hoped they can be turned safely into liver and pancreas cells, known as endodermal cells, which can help the body produce the insulin many diabetics lack.
Development of antibodies to stage specific cell surface markers (2) and specific markers for ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal developmental pathways has allowed early characterization of cell lines derived from the blastocyst inner cell mass.
After examining the anatomical, experimental, and genetic approaches to studying the initiation and construction of organisms, this textbook describes early embryonic development, the tissues formed by the vertebrate ectoderm, formation of the mesodermal and endodermal germ layers, and sex determination.
It turns out that the gene regulates the formation of a certain type of embryonic cell, called endodermal cells, which in turn help direct the development of other tissue involved in facial development.
Other types are teratomas, embryonal cell tumors, endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumors, choriocarcinomas, dermoid, and epidermoid tumors.
The hypothesis includes: 1) cell to cell injury performed through boundary trespassing, displayed during the different morphogenetic stages along the embryo formation; 2) the "injuring" inductive interactions of different cellular systems composed by large groups of cells with a strong cross-talk relationship, as shown by the action of specific cell groups--as the ones in the endodermal and mesodermal organizer centers-, on the surrounding cells; 3) physical and chemical "injuring" inductive phenomena such as parthenogenesis and modeling events in the embryo/post-embryo development; 4) field topography disruption resulting from interphases produced by large cellular injury.
The cells then were coaxed into forming either ectodermal, mesodermal, or endodermal cell types-the most basic cells of early development-or specialized brain cells.
Although investigators have identified chemical signals that trigger formation of ectodermal and mesodermal cells, they've remained largely ignorant of the molecules prompting endodermal development.
Typically, researchers confirm endodermal potential by differentiating a stem cell into hepatic (liver) cells.