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(särkō`mə), highly malignant tumor arising in connective- and muscle-cell tissue. It is the result of oncogenes (the cancer causing genes of some viruses) and proto-oncogenes (cancer causing genes in human cells). It may affect bone, cartilage, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and skin. See cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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; neoplasmneoplasm
or tumor,
tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to cell death. Feedback controls limit cell division after a certain number of cells have developed, allowing for tissue repair
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a malignant tumor that consists of connective tissue. Mesenchymomas, which are sarcomas made up of embryonic connective tissue (mesenchyma), are distinguished from sarcomas made up of mature tissues of mesenchymal origin, for example, bone sarcomas (osteosarcomas), cartilaginous sarcomas (chondrosarcomas), vascular sarcomas (angiosarcomas), hematopoietic sarcomas (reticulosarcomas), muscular sarcomas (leiomyosarcomas, rhabdosarcomas), and sarcomas of skeletal nerve tissue (gliosarcomas).

Sarcomas constitute about 10 percent of all malignant tumors; they occur relatively more often in some African and Asian countries. The most common sarcomas are bone tumors and tumors of soft tissues, including muscular, vascular, and nerve tissues. Sarcomas of the hematopoietic organs occur less frequently. Histomorphologically, there are round-cell, polymorphocellular (sometimes giant-cell), and spindle-cell sarcomas, all of which differ in the shape and size of the cells, and fibrosarcomas, in which fibrous elements predominate over cellular elements.

All malignant tumors are characterized by growing into and destroying surrounding tissues; this property is especially pronounced in sarcomas. The early stages of cancers differ from the early stages of sarcomas; cancers metastasize to the nearest lymph nodes, while sarcomas usually spread by way of the bloodstream and frequently metastasize to remote organs.

The principles and methods of diagnosis, preventive measures, and treatment of sarcomas are the same as those used for other malignant tumors.


Klinicheskaia onkologiia. Edited by N. N. Blokhin and B. E. Peterson, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A malignant tumor arising in connective tissue and composed principally of anaplastic cells that resemble those of supportive tissues.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Pathol a usually malignant tumour arising from connective tissue
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is also a group of tumors with heterogenous morphologic features [12].
Kose, "Endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus: analysis of 25 patients," European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, vol.
The common histopathological lesion was leiomyoma in 66 (41%) cases, followed by adenomyosis in 51 (32%) and endometrial polyps in 15 (9%), whereas malignant tumors were endometrial adenocarcinoma in three (2%), endometrial stromal sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and carcinosarcoma were each in one (0.6%) cases.
Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma recurring with multiple bone and lung metastases: report of a case.
Fleischhacker et al., "Uterine leiomyosarcoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma: lymph node metastases and sites of recurrence," Gynecologic Oncology, vol.50, no.1, pp.105-109, 1993.
van der Velden, "The efficacy of hormonal treatment for residual or recurrent low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. A retrospective study," European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol.
A multi-institutional review of outcomes of endometrial stromal sarcoma. Gynecol Oncol.
An AGCT may also be mimicked by metastatic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, as both tumors have cells of similar size with scant cytoplasm most of the time.
In both stromal nodules and low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, chimeric JAZF1-JJAZ1 mRNA transcripts can be detected by reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the majority of cases.
Of 10,083 patients who underwent such hysterectomies at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center hospitals during the study period, 9 were found to have uterine sarcoma (overall rate of 8.9 per 10,000), including 5 with leiomyosarcoma (rate of 4.96 per 10,000) and 2 each with endometrial stromal sarcoma and uterine adenosarcoma (rate of 1.98 per 10,000 for each), Dr.
The patient's pathology report indicated endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS).
First-line treatment for endometriosis-associated malignancies is usually surgery, but multimodal therapy is often required, including second-line therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and/or hormonal therapy.[sup.5] The prognosis varies, with 5-year survival ranging between 10% to 100%, depending on histologic type and stage at presentation.[sup.5] Histologic subtypes reported to date in extra-ovarian endometriosis-associated neoplasms include endometrioid carcinoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma and sex cord-stromal tumour with annular tubules.[sup.1,2]