sarcoma

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sarcoma

(särkō`mə), highly malignant tumor arising in connective- and muscle-cell tissue. It is the result of oncogenes (the cancer causing genes of some viruses) and proto-oncogenes (cancer causing genes in human cells). It may affect bone, cartilage, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and skin. See cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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; neoplasmneoplasm
or tumor,
tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to cell death. Feedback controls limit cell division after a certain number of cells have developed, allowing for tissue repair
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.

Sarcoma

 

a malignant tumor that consists of connective tissue. Mesenchymomas, which are sarcomas made up of embryonic connective tissue (mesenchyma), are distinguished from sarcomas made up of mature tissues of mesenchymal origin, for example, bone sarcomas (osteosarcomas), cartilaginous sarcomas (chondrosarcomas), vascular sarcomas (angiosarcomas), hematopoietic sarcomas (reticulosarcomas), muscular sarcomas (leiomyosarcomas, rhabdosarcomas), and sarcomas of skeletal nerve tissue (gliosarcomas).

Sarcomas constitute about 10 percent of all malignant tumors; they occur relatively more often in some African and Asian countries. The most common sarcomas are bone tumors and tumors of soft tissues, including muscular, vascular, and nerve tissues. Sarcomas of the hematopoietic organs occur less frequently. Histomorphologically, there are round-cell, polymorphocellular (sometimes giant-cell), and spindle-cell sarcomas, all of which differ in the shape and size of the cells, and fibrosarcomas, in which fibrous elements predominate over cellular elements.

All malignant tumors are characterized by growing into and destroying surrounding tissues; this property is especially pronounced in sarcomas. The early stages of cancers differ from the early stages of sarcomas; cancers metastasize to the nearest lymph nodes, while sarcomas usually spread by way of the bloodstream and frequently metastasize to remote organs.

The principles and methods of diagnosis, preventive measures, and treatment of sarcomas are the same as those used for other malignant tumors.

REFERENCE

Klinicheskaia onkologiia. Edited by N. N. Blokhin and B. E. Peterson, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1971.

L. M. SHABAD

sarcoma

[sär′kō·mə]
(medicine)
A malignant tumor arising in connective tissue and composed principally of anaplastic cells that resemble those of supportive tissues.

sarcoma

Pathol a usually malignant tumour arising from connective tissue
References in periodicals archive ?
Cyclin D1 as a diagnostic immunomarker for endometrial stromal sarcoma with YWHAE-FAM22 rearrangement.
Objective: To evaluate clinico-pathological features and prognostic valuses of Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) through comparison of the two grade groups (low-and high-grade disease).
Ultrasonographic findings of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus with a focus on cystic degeneration.
Styron SL, Burke TW, Linville WK: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma recurring over three decades.
Prognostic value of the diagnostic criteria distinguishing endometrial stromal sarcoma, low grade from undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma, 2 entities within the invasive endometrial stromal neoplasia family.
Diffuse ER, and PR, staining is also found in endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma, but less frequently in UC.
Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with sex cord elements is a rare, malignant tumor of the uterine corpus.
13) Strong CD10 immunostaining is usually present in endometrial stromal sarcoma, but can be a relatively nonspecific marker in this region.
In addition to epithelioid smooth muscle tumors (epithelioid leiomyosarcoma and epithelioid leiomyoma), the other important differential diagnoses of PEComa include malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma of tendon and aponeuroeses (melanoma of the soft parts), alveolar soft part sarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma with clear cell features, carcinoma (especially renal cell and adrenocortical carcinoma), paraganglioma, angiomyolipoma, and any other tumor with focal or prominent clear cell change.
If glands within the adenomyotic foci are sparse, the differential diagnosis with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma should be raised, (21) whereas an excess of glands might suggest the possibility of an endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma extending into (or even arising within) foci of adenomyosis.
There were no features of endometrial stromal sarcoma.