Epiphallus bridge-shaped, undivided, quite large in relation to the phallus, about as wide as the endophallus
20, the relationships of the genera in the clade are unresolved, except for Goja and Ianthorntonia; the clade is monophyletic, supported by two synapomorphies: endophallus
radular or with sclerites (5-1), and external parameres membranous or well defined projections (7-1).
4) closed anteriorly, with border rounded; aedeagal arch narrowing posteriorly; external parameres broad, blunt ended, with a row of pores on outer edge posteriorly; endophallus
with nine small, elongate, spindle shaped sclerites.
In Megalopus armatus (Megalopodidae) the male has a long endophallus
with complex membranous protuberances and a terminal flagellum that probably reaches the spermatheca.
between aedeagal apodeme with 2 pairs of pointed, sclerotised structures, one pair with curved, hollow, cone-like structure in which another pair is placed (Fig.
Endophallic layer: the endophallus
bears small anterior apodemes, laterally flattened and divergent; the gonopore process is slender and digitiform with a T-shaped tip.
Overall the endophallus
was relatively simple as is typical for halictids.
long and thin (but not flagello-shaped); joined to the parameres by simple temones having two dorsal structures of differing shape and size.
The phallus is characterised by a particular type of epiphallus, and in some genera (the Rhicnoderma genus group) by having the middle and posterior parts of the endophallus
in the form of two simple elongate rods.
Phallic complex with a tubular endophallus
, strongly sclerified.
The subfamily Proscopiinae contains two tribes, each with genera clearly related by their external and internal morphology, their habits and their distribution: tribe Proscopiini--Amazonic, arboreal, mostly of large size, with marked sexual dimorphism, male genitalia with complex sclerotized structures in the endophallus
, and female genitalia with a single spermatheca more or less complex.
Finally, Eades (2000) presented a synthesis of classification based on male genitalia and proposed a scenario regarding the evolution of the endophallus