schubarti having a high genotypic plasticity, reflected in notable levels of endoreduplication
and/or non-segregation at the haploid level (Sterken et al., 2012) but also at the diploid and even triploid levels.
Tetraploidy and partial endoreduplication
in a tripronuclear zygote obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Spontaneous chromosome doubling was also not preferred because it may occur via somatic cell fusion, endoreduplication
, endomitosis and possibly many other mechanisms (Jensen, 1974).
Through a phenomenon called endoreduplication
, the cells in Grand Gala make copies of their DNA, but don't divide.
Sodium arsenite induces chromosome endoreduplication
and inhibits protein phosphatase activity in human fibroblasts.
Topics include: water deficit stress-induced changes in higher plants and implications for global arid regions, physical and chemical signals and their action in systemic responses of plants to local wounding, root water transport under abiotic stress conditions, amino acids in the rhizosphere, endoreduplication
in cereal plants, an overview of antioxidant properties of strawberries, and more.
: in which chromosome duplication occurs without nuclear division has been reported after 2,4-D treatment (Dvorak 1968).
Analysis of the tomato fruit growth response to temperature and plant fruit load in relation to cell division, cell expansion and DNA endoreduplication
. Annals of Botany, v.95, p.439-447, 2005.
and endomitosis constitute the major mechanisms of polyploidization in potato cells.
In the period from 4H to 8H, when the number of notochord cells is constant at 20, substantial numbers of notochord cells continue to synthesize DNA, suggesting a high degree of endoreduplication
. BrdU incorporation continues in many notochord cells at least until 15H, in parallel with the increase in notochord cell number, as demonstrated in BrdU pulse-labeling experiments (Fig.
Cell expansion and endoreduplication
show a large genetic variablilty in pericarp and contribute strongly to tomato fruit growth.
(35,36) The process of endoreduplication
results in multiple cycles of DNA replication associated with a failure of cell division, thus causing markedly enlarged polyploid nuclei with extensive chromosomal gains (Figure 4, B).