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any instrument used to look inside the body. Usually consisting of a fiber-optic tube attached to a viewing device, endoscopes are used to explore and biopsy such areas as the colon and the bronchi of the lungs. Endoscopes employing miniature television cameras and tiny surgical implements now allow exploration and endoscopic surgery through small incisions; such surgery is much less traumatic to the patient than traditional open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery, in which the endoscope is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen or chest, is used to correct abnormalities of the ovaries and as an alternative to traditional gall bladder and chest surgery. Arthroscopic surgery is endoscopic surgery performed on joints such as the knee or shoulder.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a medical instrument for the examination of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus, stomach, and bronchi) and the abdominal and other body cavities. Endoscopes have optical and illumination systems. There are two basic types: rigid endoscopes (for example, proctoscopes), which use optical systems of lenses, and flexible fiberscopes (for example, esophago-gastroscopes), which use fiber optics. Fiberscopes make possible the examination of organs that cannot be seen with rigid endoscopes (for example, the duodenum). The optical systems of flexible endoscopes consist of numerous glass fibers (light guides), which measure 0.01–0.02 mm in diameter.

The use of endoscopes not only has made possible the examination of various organs but also has aided greatly in the visual guiding of biopsy procedures and in surgery (removal of foreign bodies and polyps, coagulation of bleeding vessels). Modern endoscopes permit complication-free examination.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An instrument used to visualize the interior of a body cavity or hollow organ.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Table-IV: Age in relation to different endoscopic findings.
Table-V: Age in relation to different symptoms with normal and abnormal endoscopic findings.
(13) Although it is difficult to decipher the meaning of these results as the percutaneous discectomy cohort had a narrow indication criteria and were not matched to any controls, these results were nonetheless promising and led to further interest in endoscopic techniques.
(9) Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery offers a novel and often more conservative approach to the middle ear and temporal bone.
In addition, the flexible endoscopic suturing using the company's OverStitch Endoscopic Suturing System is now established as an important tool for both surgeons and gastroenterologists that enables a wide array of new endolumenally performed patient treatment options.
The aim of this retrospective study was to compare postoperative outcomes after LHM+Dor fundoplication (DF) between patients who underwent prior endoscopic balloon dilatation and those who did not.
KEYWORDS: Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery, Pituitary Adenoma, Sellar Tumor.
After the perforated edges shrank, and while maintaining the wound edges with an endoscopic grasper, one endoscopic OTSC clamp was used (Figure 2).
The secondary outcomes such as the number of endoscopic sessions, need for emergent surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization, bleeding-related deaths, transfusion requirements, hospitalization period, and survival time information were also retrospectively compared between the two groups.
In half of the patients resection was approached by sub-labial trans-septal trans-sphenoidal microsurgery and endoscopic trans-sphenoidal microsurgery was used in the other half.