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any instrument used to look inside the body. Usually consisting of a fiber-optic tube attached to a viewing device, endoscopes are used to explore and biopsy such areas as the colon and the bronchi of the lungs. Endoscopes employing miniature television cameras and tiny surgical implements now allow exploration and endoscopic surgery through small incisions; such surgery is much less traumatic to the patient than traditional open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery, in which the endoscope is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen or chest, is used to correct abnormalities of the ovaries and as an alternative to traditional gall bladder and chest surgery. Arthroscopic surgery is endoscopic surgery performed on joints such as the knee or shoulder.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a medical instrument for the examination of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus, stomach, and bronchi) and the abdominal and other body cavities. Endoscopes have optical and illumination systems. There are two basic types: rigid endoscopes (for example, proctoscopes), which use optical systems of lenses, and flexible fiberscopes (for example, esophago-gastroscopes), which use fiber optics. Fiberscopes make possible the examination of organs that cannot be seen with rigid endoscopes (for example, the duodenum). The optical systems of flexible endoscopes consist of numerous glass fibers (light guides), which measure 0.01–0.02 mm in diameter.

The use of endoscopes not only has made possible the examination of various organs but also has aided greatly in the visual guiding of biopsy procedures and in surgery (removal of foreign bodies and polyps, coagulation of bleeding vessels). Modern endoscopes permit complication-free examination.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An instrument used to visualize the interior of a body cavity or hollow organ.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Balloon, forceps (Olympus FG-49L), snare, Dormia basket and Soehendra stent retriever had been the main methods of stent retrieval in both dilated and non-dilated CBD, and had been used at the discretion of the endoscopist concerned.
We examined several factors, including cecal intubation time, patients' perceived pain, sedation, and endoscopist experience between examinations that used PQL and the previous examination, where an SD scope was used.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis (ERCP) was performed by Olympus duodeno scope (TJF Q180V) by an endoscopist having at least 3 years experience of performing independent ERCPs.
As a general opinion, endoscopists believe that they may encounter difficulties in the procedures in obese patients and that the duration of endoscopy may be longer than it should be (5).
(1) Its rapid onset and short therapeutic effect provides optimal conditions for the endoscopist, comfort to the patient, and rapid recovery.
Among the 12 subjects, no patient was suspected of this syndrome by the endoscopists or referring physician.
(i) To evaluate the accuracy of expert endoscopists to detect dysplasia in patients with BE using i-Scan.
This should not affect patient outcomes, as shown in a recent comparison between surgical and nonsurgical endoscopists; there was no significant difference in cecal intubation rate, adenoma detection rate, or polypectomy rate, and surgical endoscopists reported lower rates of hemorrhage [20].
To audit the GI endoscopy services in KZN and compare these with the current guidelines for infrastructure, number of endoscopists and number of GEs and the effect the available resources and manpower have on achieving a TWR.
Reports are mostly in commercial-based proforma sheets and they are handwritten by endoscopists of different academic levels at the end of the procedure.
(3,6,7) An endoscopist's ADR is designated as one of the primary outcome measures due to its correlation with and ability to predict colorectal cancer prevention.

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