Endosperm


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Related to Endosperm: endosperm nucleus

endosperm

[′en·də‚spərm]
(botany)
The nutritive protein material within the embryo sac of seed plants.
Storage tissue in the seeds of gymnosperms.

Endosperm

 

in the seed of gymnosperms and most flowering plants, a tissue in which the nutrient substances necessary for the development of the embryo are deposited. In gymnosperms the endosperm is formed in the ovule during germination of the megaspore; it consequently becomes the female prothallus (gametophyte), with a haploid set of chromosomes. The archegonia in gynosperms develop from certain cells of the endosperm. In angiosperms the endosperm is formed after fertilization as a result of the merging of the spermatozoid with the secondary (diploid) nucleus of the embryo sac. In this case the cells of the endosperm are triploid. By uniting sets of chromosomes from both parent plants the endosperm becomes a physiologically active, viable nutrient tissue. It not only feeds the embryo but fosters embryonic growth and differentiation.

A distinction may be made between the nuclear, cellular, and helobial types of endosperm. In the first type the cell walls do not form immediately after formation of the nuclei. In cellular endosperms the cell walls form immediately after each division of the nuclei. Helobial endosperm is intermediate between the other two types. Endosperm is not equally developed in the mature seeds of flowering plants of different families. Thus, it is large in Gramineae, Solanaceae, and Umbelliferae, but in many other families, for example, Leguminosae, Compositae, and Rosaceae, the endosperm is poorly developed, and reserve nutrient matter is deposited in the embryo itself, mainly in the cotyledons. In many Orchidaceae the endosperm is not formed.

REFERENCES

Khudiak, M. I. Endosperm pokrytosemennykh rastenii. Kiev, 1963.
Poddubnaia-Arnol’di, V. A. Tsitoembriologiia pokrytosemennykh rastenii. Moscow, 1976.
References in periodicals archive ?
2016) found that lipids and protein bodies inside the endosperm cells of Morinda citrifolia served as the main reserve components.
Samples of endosperm (without tip cap, pericarp, and germ) as well as from the whole kernel were taken from each genotype.
Rice Cultivar Identification by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Endosperm Proteins.
2011) nine days after inoculation of zygotic embryos of different accessions transported in endosperm discs stored in plastic bags at 17[degrees]C for two days.
The detrimental effect of water limitation on seedlings growth has been also observed by Mohammadkhani & Heidari (2008), and it was expected, shoot and root as because depend on the endosperm as source of energy, besides metabolites, until the plantlet achieves autonomy for its own support (Aoki et al.
According to previous studies, MSI1 gene acts as a key role in expressing endosperm development in apomixis, meanwhile playing a pivotal role in the seed development process.
In a literature review on endothelium, Werker (1997) suggests several functions for this tissue, such as transference of nutrients, temporary accumulation of nutrients, ability to act in metabolizing dissolved products in its own cells, secretion of digestive enzymes, and also act as a limiting barrier, preventing the embryo and endosperm from excessive growth.
Polishing removes the aleurone layer and embryo which parts of the rice grain are richer with vitamins, minerals, protein and fiber than the endosperm itself.
Endosperm development is critical for viable seed production in
In contrast, mature coconuts contain less water, and their endosperm thickens quickly to white edible meat.
Supercol polymers are extracted from guar endosperm and supplied as powders of varying granulation and viscosity.