The advisceral flow starts on the anterior side of the heart; moves toward the endostyle before arriving at the pharynx and the middorsal vessel, which supplies hemolymph to the digestive tract; and lastly passes to the dorsal end of the heart (Mukai et al., 1978).
4E), including an endostyle as well as an imperforated pharyngeal basket (Fig.
On ciliary mechanisms in brachiopods and some polychaetes, with a comparison of the ciliary mechanisms on the gills of molluscs, Protochordata, brachiopods, and cryptocephalous polychaetes, and an account of the endostyle
of Crepidula and its allies.
Purebred Asymmetron lucayanum:(E) mid neurula,(F) late neurula,(G) early larva, (H, 1) 66-h larva (asterisk in I marks the relatively undifferentiated right wall of the pharynx anterior to the endostyle
nigra Color of living animals Black and shiny Tunic Smooth Oral siphon Bent dorsally, 8-10 lobes, usually not visible in living animals Atrial sphon Anterior to the middle of the body Right side Longitudinal transverse, and oblique fibers; longitudinal musculature wider and running toward both the endostyle
and the posterior region Peripharyngel groove Both laminas smooth Pharyngeal papillae Absence of intermediate papillae Alimentary canal Occupies more than 2/3 of the left side; intestinal loop at the level of the base of the atrial siphon P.
In the same species, the niches where the progenitor cells reside and proliferate are thought to be located in the anterior part of the endostyle
(Voskoboynik et al, 2008).
listerianum is positioned dorsally, close to the oral siphon and opposite to the endostyle
(which is ventral) (Fig.
The pharyngeal endoderm on the right side differentiates into the endostyle
dioica, increase in the number of endostyle
cells as a measure of developmental progression might fulfill such requirements.
The cephalochordate pharynx differs from that of the Enteropneusta in that it possesses an endostyle
on the ventral midline.
3a, b, for stomach, intestine, endostyle
; pharyngeal slits and neural complex not shown) were still confined by an intact perivisceral epithelium, and thus few cells were free in the peribranchial cavity (Fig.
is a specialized organ in the pharynx of tunicates, cephalochordates, cyclostomates, and certain prosobranchiates (Orton, 1912).