endosymbiosis


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endosymbiosis

[‚en·dō‚sim·bē′ō·səs]
(ecology)
A mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives inside the other.
References in periodicals archive ?
With this in mind, cell origins have been explained with other two major models; first a fusion model where an endosymbiosis event distributing the mitochondrion came very early, or a fusion later model where endosymbiosis happened after development of several intracellular structures.
(3, 45) However, although almost all bacterial proteins (FtsA, FtsB, FtsI, FtsK, FtsL, FtsN, FtsQ, FtsZ, and ZipA) were lost during endosymbiosis, (3, 30) with FtsZ and ZED (Zap-like protein) remaining in the inner mt-division machineries in eukaryotes, it was unknown how the bacterial division proteins were lost (Fig.
The endosymbiosis hypothesis was first proposed in the 1960s by biologist Lynn Margulis, who believed that organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, the energy-producing organelles in all eukaryotic organisms, were originally free-living organisms that were conscripted into the bodies of larger cells.
The mitochondrion is thought to have had its origin in the fusion of an anaerobic archebaterium and an aerobic eubacterium in the process of endosymbiosis. If this is the origin of all eukaryotes then mitochondrial DNA studies suggest this was a unique event and all eukaryotes have a single common ancestor, called the last eukaryote common ancestor (LECA).
He describes how these constraints affected the later evolution of cells and kept bacteria and archaea simple organisms, and how an endosymbiosis in which one bacterium got inside an archaeon broke those constraints and enabled the evolution of more complex cells, and why it only happened once.
Her own "endosymbiosis theory of cell evolution," quickly accepted by scientists in the 1980s, showed the physiology and community activities of microbes became symbiotically intertwined billions of years ago.
Hraber, Discovering Molecular Mechanisms of Mutualism with Computational Approaches to Endosymbiosis, University of New Mexico, Santa Fe, NM, USA, 2001.
In turn, yet only as recently as ~550 Mya, one of those protists likely experienced a second symbiosis (or "serial endosymbiosis") with a cyanobacterium.
A focus on the organismal level, for example, will not solve the problems of hybridization that are brought by strict or relaxed sexual reproduction or viral-mediated genetic exchanges, or the problems of ancient events of fusions or endosymbiosis. However, homoplasy and the optimization of characters and trees of cladistic analysis provide a rigorous framework to discover the magnitude and source of nonvertical processes in evolution.
This confirms the assumption that the [N.sub.2]-fixing endosymbiosis is maintained by a physical relationship between the cell surfaces of symbiotic partners.
635-600 million years ago - mya-), a process preceded by endosymbiosis. The level of complexity this relationship has achieved is made evident by the recent discovery of nested symbioses coupled to lateral gene transfer (81).