(2016) observed that the tegument of the seeds of Peltophorum dubium is rigid, having a layer of macrosclereids in the exotesta, a layer of braquiesclereids in the mesotesta and a layer of osteosclereids in the endotesta
, providing its hardness, indicative of physical dormancy.
Another possible synapomorphy is single-layered endoreticulate endotesta (derived from the inner epidermis of the outer integument), as in Ascarina, Sarcandra, and Chloranthus, but this is equivocal because this layer is unspecialized in Hedyosmum-, the character is inapplicable in Ceratophyllum because it has only one integument.
199) stated that there may be only two cell layers, but that this is uncertain because it is difficult to distinguish the exotesta from the fruit wall and because there may be additional cells above holes in the endotesta (see Friis et al., 2015, fig.
132 Endotesta (0) unspecialized, (1) single layer of thin-walled cells with fibrous endoreticulum, (2) multiple layer of thin-walled cells with fibrous endoreticulum, (3) tracheidal, (4) palisade of thick-walled cells.
Cross section of the young seed showing the mesotesta and endotesta
(endothelium) (black asterisk).
The uniseriate endotesta (Figures 7A and B) is formed by columnar cells.
The endotesta presents inner epidermis with thin-walled palisade-like cells.
Estos resultados demuestran como la testa de las semillas de Ilex kunthiana esta influyendo directamente en la baja tasa de germinacion bajo condiciones naturales porque su efecto negativo depende de la composicion y las caracteristicas anatomicas del tipo de tejido de la exo, meso y endotesta
y de su estado de madurez y desarrollo (Trujillo, 1995).
170, 171) have a mesotestal layer filled with large cavities such as are unknown in Ammannia, and the multicellular sclerenchymatous endotesta
typical of the Lythraceae is not present.
There are also other terms that are used in the descriptions of cycad, seeds and embryos that need clarification such as endotesta, perisperm, epicotyl and hypocotyl.
(2006), "The typical gymnospermous seed coat comprises three layers: and outer fleshy parenchymatous layer (sarcotesta), a middle sclerenhymatous (stony) layer (sclerotesta) and an innermost parenchymatous layer (endotesta) which generally collapses at maturity and fonns a thin membranous layer".
to orange-red or white sarcotesta and a stony endotesta
, ovoid, 1-4 cm