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The epithelial layer of cells lining the heart and vessels of the circulatory system.



a tissue found in animals and man consisting of specialized cells that line the inner surfaces of blood and lymph vessels, as well as the cavities of the heart. The endothelium is formed from the mesenchyme. It consists of a single layer of closely packed flat cells, which are usually separated from underlying tissues by a basal membrane. The endothelium of lymph vessels has no basal membrane. The cytoplasm of endothelial cells of certain capillaries may have pores that account for the permeability of the capillary wall, as, for example, in the renal glomeruli.

The endothelium of the enlarged capillaries of the blood-forming organs and the endothelium present in the liver, adrenal cortex, and certain other organs has a great capacity for phagocytosis. The endothelial cells of these organs belong to the reticuloendothelial system.

References in periodicals archive ?
Endothelial cell density is highest at birth (6000 cells/[mm.
Endothelial cell density is a gauge of endothelial function, although it does not always correlate with corneal thickness.
Increasing nitric oxide production can revitalize endothelial function and prevent a host of cardiovascular disease risks.
This enzyme is called endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).
Significantly improve endothelial function (55 percent after 8 weeks of supplementation; 66 percent after 12 weeks of supplementation)
A study from 2012 at the University Hospital Zurich has already established the improvement of endothelial function in people with coronary artery disease.
The human endothelial cell line ISO-HAS was obtained from the Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan).
The total number of labeled-U937 cells bound to endothelial cells was determined using fluorescence intensity (FI) values and cell numbers.
Using nanotechnology approaches, researchers measured the release of molecules from the endothelial cells including nitric oxide, an essential regulator of blood vessel health.
Endothelial dysfunction has been succinctly and deftly defined by Corretti, Panjrath, and Jones as "regulatory changes leading to abnormal vasomotion and the expression of a prothrombotic and proinflammatory phenotype of the vascular endothelium.
In this review we examine the implications of circulating MPs in endothelial dysfunction, focusing on the endothelial NO bioavailability and oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell proliferation.