We aim at simulating the trajectory of droplets transported by a pressure-driven carrier fluid, as they evolve in a surface energy gradient
, generated by channel depth variations or surface tension inhomogeneities.
Several million years ago, a random aggregation of minerals somehow coalesced into a single entity, which was able to maintain an energy gradient
across a membrane that gave birth to life on Earth.
In this equation, the term [beta](t)|[kappa](t)|[nabla][kappa](t) is the internal energy gradient
and the term [delta](t)[nabla][delta](t) is the external energy gradient
F] is the mass flux due to the potential energy gradient
The positive free energy gradient of a biotic system in respect to the environment maintains its ability for an intensified reaction.
Their activity is provided by the positive free energy gradient.
They contain a large number of chromophores coordinated to efficiently transfer energy down an energy gradient
and emit between 662 and 666 nm.
With no energy gradient
built in, "the actual efficiency drops off after the fourth generation," or layer of branches, Moore says.
Thus thermal diffusivity is the parameter relating energy flux to energy gradient
, whereas conductivity relates the energy flux to the temperature gradient.
An energy gradient
develops between the magnets, with the strongest at the top and the weakest at the bottom; all the lines run parallel to the magnets.
Diffusion to the surface is driven by a potential energy gradient
between the surface and the bulk, with the solute molecules experiencing a lower energy at the surface.
A method for selectively aperturing a nonwoven web with a plurality of surface energy gradients
was recently patented.