injunction

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injunction,

in law, order of a court directing a party to perform a certain act or to refrain from an act or acts. The injunction, which developed as the main remedy in equityequity,
principles of justice originally developed by the English chancellor. In Anglo-American jurisprudence equitable principles and remedies are distinguished from the older system that the common law courts evolved.
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, is used especially where money damagesdamages,
money award that the judgment of a court requires the defendant in a suit to pay to the plaintiff as compensation for the loss or injury inflicted. Damages are the form of legal redress most commonly sought.
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 would not satisfy a plaintiff's claim, or to protect personal or property rights from irreparable harm. It has been historically important especially in torttort,
in law, the violation of some duty clearly set by law, not by a specific agreement between two parties, as in breach of contract. When such a duty is breached, the injured party has the right to institute suit for compensatory damages.
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, domestic relations, labor, and civil-rightscivil rights,
rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than "political rights," which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike "natural rights," civil rights have a legal as well as a
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 law.

Originally courts granted only prohibitory injunctions, on the grounds that the performance of affirmative orders could not be easily compelled or supervised. In the 19th cent., though, affirmative (mandatory) injunctions began to be used, and they are now granted in unusual circumstances. Injunctions issued while an action is pending are termed preliminary, or interlocutory; they are intended to protect the plaintiff's interest so that a final judgment will not be worthless, and they cannot, for the most part, be reviewed by higher courts. If irreparable injury would result even before notice of a hearing could be served, the court may grant a temporary restraining order, which is binding on the defendant until a hearing can be held. A final or perpetual injunction is part of the final judgment of the court, and may be issued after all the evidence has been heard.

Injunctions, like most remedies of an equitable nature, are usually granted by a judge sitting without a jury. The broad discretion courts have enjoyed in using this power has, however, been limited by statute in many areas of the law. An injunction is essentially a personal order, and a defendant who disobeys may be punished for contemptcontempt,
in law, interference with the functioning of a legislature or court. In its narrow and more usual sense, contempt refers to the despising of the authority, justice, or dignity of a court.
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. An injunction in force may be terminated or modified by the court.

Injunctions are today granted in many circumstances where courts of equity formerly refused to act. Thus, courts have ordered the performance of the terms of a contractcontract,
in law, a promise, enforceable by law, to perform or to refrain from performing some specified act. In a general sense, all civil obligations fall under tort or contract law.
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, or the payment of legal damages by a defendant, sparing the plaintiff the need to seek execution of a judgmentjudgment,
decision of a court of law respecting the issues before it. The term ordinarily is not applied to the decree (order) of courts of equity. The outstanding characteristic of a legal judgment, in contrast to an equitable decree, is its finality and fixity; thus, except
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. Injunctions have long been used to abate nuisancesnuisance,
in law, an act that, without legal justification, interferes with safety, comfort, or the use of property. A private nuisance (e.g., erecting a wall that shuts off a neighbor's light) is one that affects one or a few persons, while a public nuisance (e.g.
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. The use of the injunction in labor disputes has been a matter of great controversy in U.S. history.

In the late 19th cent. employers were often granted injunctions against strikes or boycotts when they alleged that the purpose of labor's activity (e.g., unreasonably limiting the employer's freedom by requiring him to hire only union members) was illegal. The power of federal courts to enjoin union activity was restricted by the Federal Anti-Injunction (Norris-LaGuardia) Act of 1932, and many states passed similar laws. Later legislation, however, including the 1947 Taft-Hartley Labor ActTaft-Hartley Labor Act,
1947, passed by the U.S. Congress, officially known as the Labor-Management Relations Act. Sponsored by Senator Robert Alphonso Taft and Representative Fred Allan Hartley, the act qualified or amended much of the National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act of
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 and the 1959 Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act, restored much of the power to use labor injunctions.

injunction

Law an instruction or order issued by a court to a party to an action, esp to refrain from some act, such as causing a nuisance
References in periodicals archive ?
142-2019." All SUCs and LUCs, he said, "are enjoined to synchronize its respective Academic Year (AY) to a Fiscal Year (FY) starting FY 2019 and to ensure that starting FY 2020, all SUCs and LUCs have synchronized their academic year to a fiscal year."
"We have a huge interest and stake in the petition since our right to property is likely to be contravened and our interest and rights in the petition will not be articulated unless we are enjoined in the proceedings to be able to aid the court in determining the petition fairly and conclusively," the company told the court.But the two petitioners and the Murang'a County government objected to the application by Del Monte arguing that the company has no business to engage in the process of the lease renewal as that is the express mandate of NLC and the county government.
Smith, Kline & French Laboratories -- which I introduced in my piece for this magazine last fall -- the owner of the Eskay mark obtained a consent decree that enjoined the defendant from using that trademark or any colorable imitation of it.
For example, more than 60 years ago, the owner of the ESKAY mark, Eskay Drugs, Inc., obtained a consent decree that enjoined defendant Smith, Kline & French Labs, from using the ESKAY trademark or any colorable imitation of it.
"We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents; in pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth." (Quran 46:15)
Summary: After leaving 647 dead and affecting 487,364 families, super-typhoon Bopha has devasted many in the Phillipines and the Philippine Embassy in Abu Dhabi has enjoined all Filipino expatriates to assist the ongoing relief operations for the survivors.
There is no onus on Christ's followers to wear crosses - which sets us apart from Jews (enjoined to cover their heads), Sikhs (enjoined to wear turbans), veiled Muslim women (who interpret two Koranic verses as an obligation to cover up) and Jains (who wear masks lest they kill insects by ingesting them through mouth or nostrils).
The US District Court for the Northern District of Georgia issued a preliminary injunction that enjoined Delta for terminating the agreement on 29 May 2008.
The Florida Supreme Court has permanently enjoined four individuals and their respective businesses from the unlicensed practice of law.
"(1) 'the parties are the same in both [the foreign and domestic lawsuits],' and (2) 'resolution of the case before the enjoining court is dispositive of the action to be enjoined.' ...
Pius V, besides his personal penances, enjoined the entire Catholic world to pray the rosary and organized processions throughout Rome for the Marian prayer.
Finally, all parties involved in the construction and renovation of buildings in these jurisdictions should also be aware that the New York City Department of Buildings might be enjoined in the near future from issuing any temporary c/o, at least for residential properties.