enkephalin


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enkephalin

(ĕnkĕf`əlĭn), one of several naturally occurring morphinelike substances (endorphinsendorphins
, neurotransmitters found in the brain that have pain-relieving properties similar to morphine. There are three major types of endorphins: beta endorpins, found primarily in the pituitary gland; and enkephalins and dynorphin, both distributed throughout the nervous
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) released from nerve endings of the central nervous system and the adrenal medulla. They act as analgesics and sedatives in the body and appear to affect mood and motivation.

enkephalin

[en′kef·ə·lən]
(biochemistry)
A mixture of two polypeptides isolated from the brain; central mode of action is an inhibition of neurotransmitter release.
References in periodicals archive ?
The enkephalins are found mainly in those areas of the brain associated with pain control, including the periventricular area, the periaqueductal gray, the midline raphe nuclei, the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horns in the spinal cord, and the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus.
Biological inactivation of enkephalins and the role of enkephafn-dipepddyl-carboxypeptidase ("enkephafnase") as neuropepddase.
The purpose of the randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled Phase II study is to evaluate the effect of intradermal injection of NP2 Enkephalin on pain reported by subjects suffering from severe intractable pain due to cancer, as well as to confirm the safety of the treatment.
56-58) Acupuncture may increase natural opioids such as enkephalins or serotonin that help reduce pain through endogenous central nervous system analgesia pathways.
In other work by George and colleagues (1991), they concluded that a relative lack of enkephalin peptides trans-synaptically, possibly resulting from enhanced enkephalin degradation, might contribute to increased alcohol consumption in C57Bl/6J mice.
Having established the safety profile our development options will expand and other indications may prove better targets for this versatile therapeutic approach, be it with NP2 Enkephalin or other drug candidates from our NTDDS platform.
Interestingly, while there is an increase in endorphin and enkephalin proteins in adults, there is also a big decrease in the availability of mu and delta opioid receptors, which are necessary in order for pain medications, such as morphine, to work.
1997; Welch and Eads 1999) and enkephalin in the NAcc (Valverde et al.
Although there is no evidence for opioid dysfunction per se in CRPS, dysfunction may reside in the descending pain control systems that use endogenous opioids such as enkephalin.
Various concentrations of met-enkephalin, or the first two (YG) or three (YGG) amino acids of the enkephalins, will then be added to determine if the immune parameter (IL-2 production) is enhanced or suppressed.
The last study participant has been recruited to Diamyd Medical's (STO:DIAMB)(Pink Sheets:DMYDY) Phase II study in which cancer pain is treated with the drug candidate NP2 Enkephalin.
It now only remains a few patients until we can announce that our US Phase II study in cancer pain with the drug candidate NP2 Enkephalin is fully enrolled and we continue our focused work to include the last patients in the study.