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(fĭs`cho͝olə), abnormal, usually ulcerous channellike formation between two internal organs or between an internal organ and the skin. It may follow a surgical procedure with improper healing, or it may be caused by injury, abscess, or infection with penetration deep enough to reach another organ or the skin. When open at only one end it is called an incomplete fistula or sinus. The most common sites of fistula are the rectum and the urinary organs, but almost any part of the body may be affected. Rectal fistulas are often associated with colitis, cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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, sexually transmitted diseasessexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
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, and other disorders. Usually a fistula requires surgery. In horses an abscess on the withers from chafing and infection is termed a fistula.



an abnormal passage between hollow organs or between an organ, body cavity, or focus of disease and the body surface. Usually in the form of a narrow canal lined with epithelium or granulations, it continuously discharges pus, mucus, bile, urine, or feces.

Congenital fistulas, for example, umbilical fistulas, are developmental anomalies. Acquired fistulas result from such chronic inflammations as osteomyelitis, from tumors, or from injuries. Fistulas are usually treated by surgery.

It is sometimes necessary to create artificial fistulas surgically. They may connect hollow organs, in which case they are called internal fistulas, or anastomoses. An example is gastroenteroanastomosis in cicatricial stenosis of the outlet of the stomach.

Gastrostomy is the establishment of an external fistula, or stoma, for artificial feeding. External fistulas also permit the discharge of urine or feces. For example, cystostoma is a fistula of the urinary bladder formed when the urethra is compressed by a tumor. With external fistulas, care must be taken to avoid irritating or infecting the surrounding skin.


Struchkov, V. I. Gnoinaia khirurgiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967.


An abnormal congenital or acquired communication between two surfaces or between a viscus or other hollow structure and the exterior.


In ancient Roman construction, a water pipe of lead or earthenware.


Pathol an abnormal opening between one hollow organ and another or between a hollow organ and the surface of the skin, caused by ulceration, congenital malformation, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Based on the daily output, enterocutaneous fistula may be divided into low output fistula (< 200ml), moderate output (200 -500ml) and high output (>500ml).
Bonjer, "Intraperitoneal polypropylene mesh repair of incisional hernia is not associated with enterocutaneous fistula," British Journal of Surgery, vol.
Findings included a sigmoid enterocutaneous fistula; a wound drain was inserted into the fistula and then dressed with Kaltostat[TM] strips (ConvaTec) to aid in the absorption of exudate.
The most common postoperative complications were wound infection, respiratory tract infection, enterocutaneous fistula and burst abdomen.
Finally, a fistulogram was performed and was conclusive for an enterocutaneous fistula (Figure 2).
Westermann and colleagues reported the delayed presentation of an enterocutaneous fistula 5 months following TVT sling.
Larson, "Enterocutaneous fistula: are treatments improving?" Surgery, vol.
In conclusion, we report herein a rare case of Amyand's hernia presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in the right groin of an 85 year old female patient.
COMPLICATIONS ENCOUNTERED IN 43 PATIENTS WITH PANCREATICODUODENAL INJURIES Complication N % Chest infection 9 21 MODS 8 19 Fistula 7 16 Pancreatic fistula 5 12 Enterocutaneous fistula 2 5 Wound sepsis 6 14 Intestinal obstruction 2 5 Abdominal abscess 1 2 Peritonitis 1 2 Haemorrhage 1 2 Empyema 1 2 Hypovolaemic shock 1 2 Sepsis 1 2 Septic shock 1 2 Pulmonary tuberculosis 1 2 No.
A 36-year-old female patient was sent to our emergency unit for a subocclusive syndrome and enterocutaneous fistula. She has had a myomectomy in another health centre 6 months ago.
SK Nair.2 et al reported wound infection in 26 patients (52%), respiratory infection in 4%, enterocutaneous fistula in 16% of patients.
The difficulty in delivering nutritional support because of access problems, high-output proximal enterocutaneous fistula or proximal enteric obstruction presents a clinical challenge.