Enterotoxemia

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Enterotoxemia

 

an infectious disease of animals caused by various types of toxin-forming bacteria of the genus Clostridium that reproduce intensively in the gastrointestinal tract.

Enterotoxemia occurs in many countries. In the USSR the disease has been found mainly in sheep, especially in Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus; it occurs less commonly in calves and young hogs. The sources of the causative agent are animals suffering from the disease or those that have recovered from it. The reservoir of the causative agent is soil, in which Clostridium spores may be preserved for a long time. Most species of agricultural animals are susceptible to the causative agent of the disease.

Infection occurs through feed or water. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract promote the development of the infectious process. The disease may be ultra-acute, acute, or chronic. In ultra-acute cases the animal dies suddenly or a few hours after sudden disruption of motor coordination and convulsions. Acute cases are marked by loss of appetite and disturbances of the nervous system and digestion (excessive salivation, diarrhea). Chronic cases are also characterized by anemia and jaundice of the mucosa. The mortality rate for the ultra-acute variety of the disease is 95 percent or, sometimes, 100 percent.

Treatment includes the injection of hyperimmune serum and the use of antibiotics. To prevent the spread of the disease, all animals on an infected farm should be inoculated with polyvalent anticlostridium toxoid; the fetuses of pregnant females should be immunized one or two months before birth.

K. R. URGUEV

References in periodicals archive ?
perfringens is grouped into five types (A-E) based on the production of four major lethal toxin alpha, beta, epsilon and iota (Sawires and Songer, 2006; Zerbini and Ossiprandi, 2009; Sayeed et al., 2010) Enterotoxaemia in sheep is a fatal enteric disease and is attributed to a toxigenic type of Clostridium perfringens type D worldwide ( Lyerly et al., 2004) and is probably the significant cause of mortality in these animals of all ages (Blackwell and Buttler, 1992).
This organism secretes lethal alpha and epsilon toxins which play major role in the production of the disease but epsilon toxin has a significant role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia in ruminants (Popoff, 2011).
Presently, the diagnosis of enterotoxaemia is achieved by clinical and pathological findings, bacterial culture and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay.
Enterotoxaemia is one of the most frequently occurring diseases of sheep and goats in Balochistan, causing severe economic losses.
Figure 1 shows division wise distribution Zhob (16.17 %), Sibi (15.68 %), Quetta (15.19 %) and Kalat (14.7 %) divisions were highly infected with enterotoxaemia compared to other divisions of Balochistan.
perfringens type D are considered to be the lethal toxins involved in the enterotoxaemia disease in sheep and goats.
At the beginning of the experiment, all goats were treated with an effective anathematic and vaccinated against enterotoxaemia. The kids were housed in individual metal-mesh cages (1.5 m x 1.0 m) and given ad libitum access to standard completely mixed diets (Table 1) throughout the study.
perfringens were isolated from enterotoxaemia suspected sheep and goats from the endemic areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan during 2016.
Clostridium perfringens type D, Enterotoxaemia, Indirect haemagglutination test, Vaccine.
Among different infectious diseases of small ruminants, enterotoxaemia has been reported to be the most horrifying disease.