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an infectious disease of animals caused by various types of toxin-forming bacteria of the genus Clostridium that reproduce intensively in the gastrointestinal tract.

Enterotoxemia occurs in many countries. In the USSR the disease has been found mainly in sheep, especially in Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus; it occurs less commonly in calves and young hogs. The sources of the causative agent are animals suffering from the disease or those that have recovered from it. The reservoir of the causative agent is soil, in which Clostridium spores may be preserved for a long time. Most species of agricultural animals are susceptible to the causative agent of the disease.

Infection occurs through feed or water. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract promote the development of the infectious process. The disease may be ultra-acute, acute, or chronic. In ultra-acute cases the animal dies suddenly or a few hours after sudden disruption of motor coordination and convulsions. Acute cases are marked by loss of appetite and disturbances of the nervous system and digestion (excessive salivation, diarrhea). Chronic cases are also characterized by anemia and jaundice of the mucosa. The mortality rate for the ultra-acute variety of the disease is 95 percent or, sometimes, 100 percent.

Treatment includes the injection of hyperimmune serum and the use of antibiotics. To prevent the spread of the disease, all animals on an infected farm should be inoculated with polyvalent anticlostridium toxoid; the fetuses of pregnant females should be immunized one or two months before birth.


References in periodicals archive ?
perfringens se obtuvieron de todas las cepas de campo aisladas de crias de alpacas muertas con diagnostico de enterotoxemia durante la campana de paricion del 2014 en el distrito de Marangani, Cusco.
2004, "Clostridium perfringens type A [beta]2 toxin associated with enterotoxemia in a 5-week-old goat," Can.
Enterotoxemia is caused by the overgrowth of detrimental or bad bacteria.
If the animal survives the initial episode of grain overload, secondary effects include, but are not limited to, enterotoxemia, polioencephalomalacia, liver abscesses, and chronic laminitis (Merck Veterinary Manual 2008).
perfringens causes an enterotoxemia of sheep (and to a rare extent goats and cattle).
Table 2 Candidate BW Agents for Weaponization Disease Causative Agent Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Plague Yersinia pestis Tularemia Francisella tularensis Cholera Vibrio cholerae Venezuelan equine encephalitis VEE virus Q fever Coxiella burnetti Botulism Clostridium botulinum toxin Staphylococcal enterotoxemia Staphylococcus enterotoxin type B Multiple organ toxicity Trichothecene mycotoxin Disease Incubation Time Fatalities (Days) (Percent) Anthrax one to five 80 Plague one to five 90 Tularemia 10 to 14 five to 20 Cholera two to five 25 to 50 Venezuelan equine encephalitis two to five < one Q fever 12 to 21 < one Botulism three 30 Staphylococcal enterotoxemia one to six < one Multiple organ toxicity Dose Dependent Source: The Biological and Chemical Warfare Threat (Washington, D.
tricinctum, Gibberella zeae Ochratoxicosis Aspergillus ochraceas and Penicillium species Miscellaneous Atrophic rhinitis Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, noninfectious irritants, nutritional factors Enterotoxemia (edema disease, Toxin from E.
Biological Agents Incubation time Fatalities (days) (percent) Disease Anthrax 1 to 5 80 Plague 1 to 5 90 Tularemia 10 to 14 5 to 20 Cholera 2 to 5 25 to 50 Venezuelan equine encephalitis 2 to 5 <1 Q fever 12 to 21 <1 Botulism 3 30 Staphylococcal enterotoxemia 1 to 6 <1 (food poisoning) Multiple organ toxicity Dose dependent SOURCE: Department of Defense.
Some displaced animals are also suffering from infectious diseases like Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Peste des petit ruminants (PPR), Enterotoxemia,