CD

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Cd,

symbol for the element cadmiumcadmium
[from cadmia, Lat. for calamine, with which cadmium is found associated], metallic chemical element; symbol Cd; at. no. 48; at. wt. 112.411; m.p. 321°C;; b.p. 765°C;; sp. gr. 8.65 at 20°C;; valence +2.
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CD:

see compact disccompact disc
(CD), a small plastic disc used for the storage of digital data. As originally developed for audio systems, the sound signal is sampled at a rate of 44,100 times a second, then each sample is measured and digitally encoded on the 4 3-4 in (12 cm) disc as a series of
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CD

Abbrev. for Córdoba Durchmusterung. See Bonner Durchmusterung.

Cd

(chemistry)

CD

candela

The International Standard unit of luminous intensity; closely approximates the formerly accepted unit known as the “international candle.”

CD

(1)

cd

(operating system)
change directory.

cd

(networking)
The country code for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire, zr).

CD

(1) See carrier detect, candela and continuous delivery.

(2) (Change Directory) A DOS/Windows command. See Chdir.

(3) (Compact Disc) An optical digital audio disc that contains up to 74 minutes of hi-fi stereo sound. Introduced in the U.S. in 1983, the disc is a plastic platter (120mm/4.75" diameter) recorded on one side, with individual tracks playable in any sequence. Its storage capacity is from 650MB to 700MB. Other forms of CDs, such as CD-ROM, CD-I and Video CD, all stem from the original Compact Disc-Digital Audio (CD-DA) format. CDs can be played in CD, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW and most DVD drives. For more on how CDs are made, see CD-ROM.

Sound is converted into digital code by sampling the sound waves 44,056 times per second and converting each sample into a 16-bit number. CDs use 1.411 million bits for each second of stereo sound, although this bandwidth requirement is reduced considerably when music compression formats are used (see MP3 and AAC). The tracks are recorded as microscopic pits in a groove that starts at the center of the disc and spirals outward to the edge.

A Note on Terminology
In the early 1990s when CD-ROMs first became popular, "CD" meant music, and "CD-ROM" meant data. Today, "CD" refers to both audio CDs and data CD-ROMs, which also include CD-R and CD-RW media. See CD-ROM and mini CD.

The Books
Documentation for various CD formats are found in books commonly known by the color of their covers.

 Red Book    - CD-DA (Audio)

 Yellow Book - CD-ROM (Data)

 Orange Book - CD-R, CD-RW,
                 Photo CD (Recordable)

 White Book  - VCD (Video)

 Blue Book   - CD Extra (Audio and data)

 Green Book  - CD-I (Interactive)


What Happened to the Phonograph?


The audio CD was introduced in the U.S. in 1983, and within five years, CDs and CD players exceeded the sales of LPs and turntables.

From Carved Sound to Pits
Unlike phonograph records, in which the platter is literally carved with sound waves, CDs are recorded as microscopic pits covered by a clear, protective plastic layer. Instead of a needle vibrating in a groove, a laser shines onto the pits, and the reflections are decoded. Audio CDs, as well as all variations of the CD (CD-ROM, CD-R, etc.) use a spiral recording track like a phonograph record, but start at the center, not the edge. See analog audio.

Better Dynamic Range
Digital sound is cleaner than phonograph records because the numbers are turned into sound electronically. There are no needle pops and clicks and no tape hiss if the original recording was digital. In addition, the CD can handle a wider range of volume. A soft whisper can be interrupted by a loud cannon blast. If a phonograph record were recorded with that much "dynamic range," the needle would literally jump out of the groove.

Too Harsh for Critical Ears?
Pops and clicks aside, from the onset of audio CDs, many critics claimed digital sound was harsh and not as musical as the vinyl platter. DVD-Audio and SACD, two advanced digital formats with superior sound quality, came out in 1999, but neither one became popular (see DVD-Audio and SACD). See high-resolution audio.

In the meantime, turntables and vinyl records are still manufactured, although in smaller quantities, and this legacy industry is expected to persist. See turntable, laser turntable and USB turntable.
References in classic literature ?
Next day, to make some return for his entertainment, he took upon him to divert me with some of those stories which the monks amuse simple people with, and told me of a devil that haunted a fountain, and used to make it his employment to plague the monks that came thither to fetch water, and continued his malice till he was converted by the founder of their order, who found him no very stubborn proselyte till they came to the point of circumcision; the devil was unhappily prepossessed with a strong aversion from being circumcised, which, however, by much persuasion, he at last agreed to, and afterwards taking a religious habit, died ten years after with great signs of sanctity.
Monsieur de Beaufort took the pieces out of his mouth and presented them with great formality to Monsieur de Chavigny, saying that for that evening the entertainment was ended, but in three months it should be repeated, when Pistache would have learned a few new tricks.
Several times, taking a walk from his inn into meadows and parks, he stopped by a well-worn stile, looked across through the early evening at a gray church tower, with its dusky nimbus of thick-circling swallows, and remembered that this might have been part of the entertainment of his honeymoon.
From all his occupations he had gathered amusing anecdotes, which he told with a keen pleasure in his own powers of entertainment.
Pondering over a new form of theatrical attraction for the coming winter season, Francis had determined to revive the languid public taste for the ballet by means of an entertainment of his own invention, combining dramatic interest with dancing.
The Wizard added to the entertainment by making a big pie appear before Dorothy, and when the little girl cut the pie the nine tiny piglets leaped out of it and danced around the table, while the orchestra played a merry tune.
The Dog thus invited went at the hour appointed, and seeing the preparations for so grand an entertainment, said in the joy of his heart, "How glad I am that I came
One night Caedmon crept away as usual, and went "out of the house where the entertainment was, to the stable, where he had to take care of the horses that night.
To prevent, therefore, giving offence to their customers by any such disappointment, it hath been usual with the honest and well-meaning host to provide a bill of fare which all persons may peruse at their first entrance into the house; and having thence acquainted themselves with the entertainment which they may expect, may either stay and regale with what is provided for them, or may depart to some other ordinary better accommodated to their taste.
He winked at Kirsch on his Excellency's arrival, and that emissary, instructed before-hand, went out and superintended an entertainment of cold meats, jellies, and other delicacies, brought in upon trays, and of which Mr.
Yet his guest derived a certain amount of pleasure from the entertainment, owing to Brott's constant endeavours to bring the conversation round to Lucille.
If he were one of those who had suffered by the rioters, he durst not give him entertainment.

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