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see oceanocean,
interconnected mass of saltwater covering 70.78% of the surface of the earth, often called the world ocean. It is subdivided into four (or five) major units that are separated from each other in most cases by the continental masses. See also oceanography.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in mining, an open excavation in the ground. A trench has a trapezoidal cross section, and its length is many times greater than its width.

Sloping main, or primary, trenches are used in stripping an opencut mine or an individual area of such a mine, and also in establishing a haulage system to link the working levels with the surface. A horizontal, or cross-sectional, trench is designed to establish the initial working front at a bench. In the case of irregular mountain terrain, a trench may have an irregular cross section (hasty trench).

Main trenches are classified on various bases. In terms of their relationship to the contours of the pit, they may be external or internal. They may be of the individual type (providing haulage for a single level), the group type (serving several levels), or the general type (for all working levels in the pit). On the basis of the traffic flow, they are classified as single trenches, with two-way traffic, and paired trenches, with one-way traffic.

The width of a horizontal trench depends on the location of the haulage system and excavation equipment in the horizon being stripped. The depth of a horizontal trench corresponds to the height of the horizon to be stripped. The optimum depth of an inclined main external trench is 50–60 m.

In pits with soft rock, trenches are excavated using multibucket excavators, dragline excavators, or scrapers; single-bucket excavators (trenchers) are used in pits with hard rock. Ejection explosions may be used in digging a trench. If conditions permit, the stripped rock is placed on the surface on one or both sides of the trench; otherwise, it is moved by vehicles to spoil banks.

The rate of excavation of trenches depends largely on the time required for construction of the pit and, in sloped and steeply inclined deposits, also on the productivity of the pit.

Trenches are also used in construction, for the laying of pipelines and cables.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A narrow, straight, elongate, U-shaped valley between two mountain ranges.
A narrow stream-eroded canyon, gulley, or depression with steep sides.
A long, narrow, deep depression of the sea floor, with relatively steep sides. Also known as submarine trench.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


2. A housing, 1.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Congress might seek to implement different voting rules or procedures for different policy areas, but if it is not permitted to entrench the rules, they can be repealed by a simple majority, frustrating all such efforts.
Human behaviour is relative to its historical/cultural moment and is predicated upon what cultural scripts are available to what groups of people in any given era; Kaplan and Wexman explore popular forms of culture that fetishize heterosexual romance and reproduction which act as ideological state apparatus to entrench scripted norms of behaviour within an Oedipal narrative.
The post Entrenched views will never be put aside by either side appeared first on Cyprus Mail .
"Unfortunately, when someone is entrenched in a lifestyle such as this, they are likely to have experienced trauma in varying forms and so it takes time to build a relationship with them and develop trust.
Its rivals in the streaming business (Netflix and Amazon) are no less hungry, no less entrenched, and no less cut-throat.
Also during this time, the various positions of MPs have become thoroughly entrenched.
The Scottish Government findings exposed "entrenched" problems with inequality.
The Entrenched Board continues to make the same, debunked claim that the Independent Slate's only plan is to sell the Company when we have stated clearly that our call for a sale was specific to the strategic review period with this dysfunctional leadership team in place.
More importantly, Senator Lanlehin (SOLAN) wishes to thank all members of the party, as well as the good people of Oyo State for their support and encouragement while the process lasted, and wishes to note that the real task of emancipating our people from the clutches of lack and want the ruling APC has thrown them into, and restoring them to the paths of prosperity as is to be entrenched by the incoming ADC government, has just begun.
At ABC and UNHRC, the bias is so entrenched that it has become the unquestioned norm.
Summary: Speaker Nabih Berri commended the Lebanese Army operation on the northeastern border against Daesh (ISIS) militants entrenched in the area late Sunday.