They are projected onto the supposed envier
and manifest themselves in the way in which hidden intentions are blamed and in the fact that the envied person feels the need to shield him- or herself from the curiosity of others and the threat they pose to individual endeavours.
Therefore, comparison to a person of the same gender may produce stronger envy, thereby increasing the risk-taking behavior of the envier
if he or she perceives that the envied target is undeserving.
At the same time, benign enviers
may try to level the differences between themselves and the object of their envy by improving their own situation or status.
The primary data used involve stories of and textual references (direct quotations from third parties) to emotional episodes of envy, containing the characters (envier
and envied), the circumstances that led to envy, and subsequent interrelated events or actions undertaken by the individuals.
La prose de Melancon n'a en effet rien a envier
aux auteurs qu'il cite, de Calvino a Borges.
Pour certains, ce sont de jolies villes, modernes, dynamiques, laE[macron]ques, oE il fait bon vivre: cafE[umlaut]s sur les rivages, plages, shopping, night-clubsC* Pour d'autres, ce sont des villes constituE[umlaut]es de blocs de bE[umlaut]ton (dans le style "Bauhaus" pour Tel-Aviv) qui gEochent le littoral et oE les habitants s'entassent comme des sardines sur des plages qui n'auraient rien Ea envier
Ea celles dE[umlaut]figurE[umlaut]es de la "Costa del Sol" en Espagne.
The author emphasizes that for the envier
, envy is destructive until it is sublimated, and causes the envied to feel fearful and threatened.
1) He began to depict the tortures of an envier
, simply a man who envied another: "I envy [him] deeply, torturously," Salieri says.
Bedeian (1995) argues that while envy is primarily dyadic (restricted to the envier
and a target person, who possesses something the envier
covets), jealousy stems from the fear of losing, to a rival, a valued relationship with another person or thing.
Envy of those with higher incomes than the envier
's has long been an important factor in tax policy, which, indeed, has afflicted many academics and public service policy advisers.
In contrast, envy involves only an envier
and a target (i.e., a person whose prosperity and advantages an individual finds displeasing).
La realite commerciale exprime tout le bien de la production nationale qui n'a rien a envier
a d'autres pays.