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The Modern Diplomatic Service
The Members of the Service
By the end of the 17th cent. permanent legations had become widespread in Europe. There was no uniformity in titles and status among various ambassadors, however, and agents operating below the ambassadorial level, although influential, were often corrupt. At the Congress of Vienna (1815) this system was corrected, and a classification of diplomatic ranks was adopted. Four grades of diplomatic representatives were recognized: ambassador, papal legate, and papal nuncio; minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary; minister; and chargé d'affaires. This codification went far toward professionalizing the diplomatic service and established it as a branch of the public service in each nation.
As the diplomatic service became a regularized institution, its functions began to grow. While the ambassadors themselves continued to act as personal representatives of their particular heads of state, their staffs necessarily expanded as various types of attachés were assigned to the embassies. Today secretaries, military, cultural, and commercial attachés, clerical workers, and various experts and advisers are all part of the diplomatic corps. Diplomatic business is generally conducted according to forms long established by custom, including memorandums, informal oral or written notes, or formal notes. Although French was once the universal language of diplomacy, both French and English are used today.
Diplomatic Service of the United States
See G. Mattingly, Renaissance Diplomacy (1955); Sir Ernest Satow, Guide to Diplomatic Practice (4th ed. 1957); H. Nicolson, Diplomacy (3d ed. 1963); F. J. Merli and T. A. Wilson, ed., Matters of American Diplomacy (1974); R. F. Schulzinger, The Making of the Diplomatic Mind (1975); H. Jones, The Course of American Diplomacy (1986); A. K. Henrikson, ed., Negotiating the World Order (1986); C. V. Crabb, Jr., American Diplomacy and the Pragmatic Tradition (1989).
an official representative of a combatant who is sent to conduct negotiations with the other side. The practice of sending envoys is very ancient.
The legal status of the envoy was fixed in the Annex to the Hague Convention of 1907 Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. In performance of the mission the envoy may be accompanied by a trumpeter, cornetist, or drummer and an interpreter or flag bearer. They are all considered inviolable. It is mandatory that the envoy carry a white flag. The enemy command may or may not receive the envoy, but in all cases the personal safety of the envoy and the persons accompanying him must be ensured until they return to their own troops.
A user can write on the Envoy communicator with the accompanying stylus or a finger, to type and select or move objects on its screen. An on-screen keyboard can be used to input information, draw or write personal notations, or send handwritten messages and faxes.
Envoy can send a wireless message to another Envoy, PC or fax; broadcast a message to a group, with each member of that group receiving the message in their preferred format; gather information based on your requirements; schedule a meeting and automatically invite attendees; screen, route and organise messages; send a business card to another Envoy across a conference room table; access real-time scheduling and pricing information for US airline flights, then order tickets via fax or electronic mail; keep track of contacts through an address book; receive daily news summaries and stock information; capture, organize and review business and personal expenses on-the-go; gather, edit and analyze information in spreadsheets and graphs compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 and Excel; shop in an electronic mall.