envoy


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diplomatic service

diplomatic service, organized body of agents maintained by governments to communicate with one another.

Origins

Until the 15th cent. any formal communication or negotiation among nations was conducted either by means of ambassadors specially appointed for a particular mission or by direct correspondence among heads of states. This procedure was not always satisfactory, however, and by the mid-16th cent. several countries had established permanent representatives in foreign states. One of the first powers to do this was Venice, which in 1496 appointed two merchants as representatives in London because the journey to England was “very long and very dangerous.” Other countries later followed suit.

The Modern Diplomatic Service

The Members of the Service

By the end of the 17th cent. permanent legations had become widespread in Europe. There was no uniformity in titles and status among various ambassadors, however, and agents operating below the ambassadorial level, although influential, were often corrupt. At the Congress of Vienna (1815) this system was corrected, and a classification of diplomatic ranks was adopted. Four grades of diplomatic representatives were recognized: ambassador, papal legate, and papal nuncio; minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary; minister; and chargé d'affaires. This codification went far toward professionalizing the diplomatic service and established it as a branch of the public service in each nation.

As the diplomatic service became a regularized institution, its functions began to grow. While the ambassadors themselves continued to act as personal representatives of their particular heads of state, their staffs necessarily expanded as various types of attachés were assigned to the embassies. Today secretaries, military, cultural, and commercial attachés, clerical workers, and various experts and advisers are all part of the diplomatic corps. Diplomatic business is generally conducted according to forms long established by custom, including memorandums, informal oral or written notes, or formal notes. Although French was once the universal language of diplomacy, both French and English are used today.

Diplomatic Service of the United States

In the United States, ambassadors are appointed by the President and are subject to the approval of the Senate. Although the consular service and the diplomatic service were once separate in the United States, the Rogers Act of 1924 combined the two branches into the Foreign Service. The Foreign Service Act of 1946 reorganized the Foreign Service, raising salary levels and introducing the merit system for promotions to all but appointive positions. Today the Foreign Service is under the control of a Deputy Undersecretary of State, assisted by the Foreign Service Institute.

Diplomatic Immunity

The persons of diplomats enjoy diplomatic immunity, i.e., they are exempt from search, arrest, or prosecution by the government to which they are accredited. This immunity, which derives from the concept of extraterritoriality, is deemed necessary for diplomats to properly carry out their official duties. They are allowed communications and transportation without interference, and their embassy and residence enjoy similar privileges of extraterritoriality. This tradition of diplomatic immunity was violated by Iran during the Iran hostage crisis.

Diplomatic Relations

The larger countries of the world have permanent diplomatic relations with scores of other nations, whether those nations are considered friendly or unfriendly. If two countries have no diplomatic relations, their interests may be represented by diplomats of other powers, and when two states are at war their interests are usually represented by neutral states. In the event that a nation refuses to admit a diplomat from a foreign nation or demands his or her recall, the diplomat's government must either comply or break off relations.

Recent Developments

In the 20th and 21st cent. there have been numerous meetings of heads of state and foreign ministers and various types of international conferences, all of which have tended to lessen the traditional diplomatic function. Moreover, some claim that modern communications have also changed diplomacy greatly by removing whatever autonomy diplomats may once have had in making policy decisions. The possibility of telephone or other direct contact with a superior has allegedly reduced diplomats to a quasi-messengers. Even if this may appear true, diplomats continue to serve as expert advisers, and while not empowered to make final decisions, they greatly influence the decision-making process.

Bibliography

See G. Mattingly, Renaissance Diplomacy (1955); Sir Ernest Satow, Guide to Diplomatic Practice (4th ed. 1957); H. Nicolson, Diplomacy (3d ed. 1963); F. J. Merli and T. A. Wilson, ed., Matters of American Diplomacy (1974); R. F. Schulzinger, The Making of the Diplomatic Mind (1975); H. Jones, The Course of American Diplomacy (1986); A. K. Henrikson, ed., Negotiating the World Order (1986); C. V. Crabb, Jr., American Diplomacy and the Pragmatic Tradition (1989).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Envoy

 

an official representative of a combatant who is sent to conduct negotiations with the other side. The practice of sending envoys is very ancient.

The legal status of the envoy was fixed in the Annex to the Hague Convention of 1907 Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. In performance of the mission the envoy may be accompanied by a trumpeter, cornetist, or drummer and an interpreter or flag bearer. They are all considered inviolable. It is mandatory that the envoy carry a white flag. The enemy command may or may not receive the envoy, but in all cases the personal safety of the envoy and the persons accompanying him must be ensured until they return to their own troops.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

envoy

1
a diplomat of the second class, ranking between an ambassador and a minister resident

envoy

2, envoi
1. a brief dedicatory or explanatory stanza concluding certain forms of poetry, notably ballades
2. a postscript in other forms of verse or prose
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Envoy

Motorola's integrated personal wireless communicator. Envoy is a personal digital assistant which incorporates two-way wireless and wireline communication. It was announced on 7 March 1994 and released in the third quarter of 1994. It runs Genral Magic's Magic Cap operating system and Telescript(TM) communications language on Motorola's Dragon chip set. This includes the highly integrated Motorola 68349 processor and a special purpose application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) referred to as Astro. This chip set was designed specifically for Magic Cap and Telescript.

A user can write on the Envoy communicator with the accompanying stylus or a finger, to type and select or move objects on its screen. An on-screen keyboard can be used to input information, draw or write personal notations, or send handwritten messages and faxes.

Envoy can send a wireless message to another Envoy, PC or fax; broadcast a message to a group, with each member of that group receiving the message in their preferred format; gather information based on your requirements; schedule a meeting and automatically invite attendees; screen, route and organise messages; send a business card to another Envoy across a conference room table; access real-time scheduling and pricing information for US airline flights, then order tickets via fax or electronic mail; keep track of contacts through an address book; receive daily news summaries and stock information; capture, organize and review business and personal expenses on-the-go; gather, edit and analyze information in spreadsheets and graphs compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 and Excel; shop in an electronic mall.

http://motorola.com/MIMS/WDG/Technology/Envoy/.

This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
References in periodicals archive ?
The EU envoy met Abdul Razzaq Dawood on Wednesday and during the meeting it was agreed to bolster Pakistan exports and economic cooperation with EU.
The Special Envoy underscored Pakistan's efforts to shape a vision and political discourse in South Asia, based on dialogue, confidence-building and peaceful settlement of disputes.
Inverness-based GEG split in two, with about 40% of the Invernessbased business becoming subsidiaries of Envoy - owned by two of Mr MacGregor's sons, Iain and his younger brother John, and a Japanese investor.
He informed the envoy that there were 4,000 objects, including stone, stucco, terracotta, silver, gold, iron and semiprecious stones, displayed in the museum.
American artist and illustrator Missy Dunaway was selected for the maiden Envoy experience.
Twelve teen diplomatic envoys from three high schools will leave Taiwan for a 12-day, people-to-people, diplomatic mission in Vietnam and the Philippines, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) said in a news release on Monday.
ISLAMABAD -- Presidential envoy of Afghanistan Umer Daudzai on Tuesday met with Shah Mehmood Qureshi here in Islamabad to discuss Afghan peace process.
During the meeting with the Italian envoy, the President praised the liberal attitude of the government of Italy and its people towards the Bangladeshi nationals working there.
In his new post, Hernandez, who is the country's former envoy to South Korea, will have jurisdiction over Georgia and Azerbaijan.
Egypt's Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry receives UN Special Envoy to Syria Staffan de Mistura, November 2014 -- Press photo/AFP CAIRO -- 5 November 2018: Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukri met on Sunday, Nov.
Damascus will cooperate with Geir Pedersen, new UN special envoy for Syria, if he does not use the methods that outgoing envoy Staffan de Mistura did, Syrian Deputy Foreign Minister Faisal Mekdad said in an interview for local Al Watan newspaper,Sputnikreported.