ephedrine


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ephedrine

(ĭfĕd`rĭn, ĕf`ĭdrēn'), drug derived from plants of the genus Ephedra (see PinophytaPinophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called gymnosperms. The gymnosperms, a group that includes the pine, have stems, roots and leaves, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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), most commonly used to prevent mild or moderate attacks of bronchial asthma. Unlike epinephrineepinephrine
, hormone important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine, a catecholamine, together with norepinephrine, is secreted principally by the medulla of the adrenal gland.
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, to which it is chemically similar, ephedrine is slow to take effect and of mild potency and long duration. A bronchodilator and decongestant, ephedrine is used to relieve nasal congestion originating from allergic conditions, e.g., hay fever, or from bacterial or viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. It may be used as well to raise blood pressure. Ephedrine also is used in the production of methamphetamine (see amphetamineamphetamine
, any one of a group of drugs that are powerful central nervous system stimulants. Amphetamines have stimulating effects opposite to the effects of depressants such as alcohol, narcotics, and barbiturates.
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).

Ephedrine is the active constituent of ma huang, an herbal preparation used medically in China for thousands of years. Also commonly known as ephedra, it is derived from several Asian species of Ephedra. Preparations of these species were formerly used in "natural" dieting aids and bodybuilding supplements and also were marketed as "herbal ecstasyecstasy,
either of two drugs used for their euphoric effects. The original ecstasy, a so-called designer drug, also known as MDMA, is an analog of methamphetamine (see amphetamine).
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." Ephedra and ma huang may cause such side effects as insomnia, restlessness, euphoria, palpitations, and high blood pressure; there have been reports of a number of deaths associated with their use as recreational drugs and dietary supplements. In 2004 the Food and Drug Administration banned sales of dietary supplements containing ephedra because of illnesses and deaths associated with the drug.

Ephedrine

 

C6H5CH(OH)CH(NHCH3)CH3, an alkaloid contained in various species of plants of the genus Ephedra. Ephedrine was first isolated in 1887. Its effect is similar to that of adrenaline; it excites the central nervous system. Ephedrine hydrochloride is used in the treatment of, for example, bronchial asthma, hypotension, allergic diseases, blood loss, and overdoses of narcotics and somnifacients.

ephedrine

[ə′fed·rən]
(organic chemistry)
C10H15NO A white, crystalline, water-soluble alkaloid present in several Ephedra species and also produced synthetically; a sympathomimetic amine, it is used for its action on the bronchi, blood pressure, blood vessels, and central nervous system.

ephedrine

, ephedrin
a white crystalline alkaloid obtained from plants of the genus Ephedra: used for the treatment of asthma and hay fever; l-phenyl-2-methylaminopropanol. Formula: C6H5CH(OH)CH(NHCH3)CH3
References in periodicals archive ?
While pseudoephedrine and ephedrine imports are banned in Mexico, traffickers continue to smuggle these precursors into Mexico.
Ephedrine exhibits optical isomerism and has two chiral centres.
Callus cultures, when analysed after 60 days of growth, showed less than 5 [micro]g/g dry wt of ephedrine accumulation (Table 1).
It is understood that Kenny will insist the ephedrine entered his system through some cough mixture he took before the match - the stimulant is contained in some cold cures.
It is understood that Kenny will insist that the ephedrine entered his system through a dose of cough mixture he took before the match - the stimulant is contained in some cold cures.
Most drug offences uncovered by in-competition tests carry an automatic twoyear ban, but ephedrine is a "specified substance" under the World Anti-Doping Agency code, which means there is the potential for a more lenient punishment - possible sanctions range from a reprimand up to a two-year suspension.
In a previous study we compared mephentermine and ephedrine for prophylaxis of hypotension following spinal anaesthesia during caesarean section (3).
LONDON, August 29 /PRNewswire/ -- The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency's (MHRA) announcement today that cold and flu products containing pseudoephedrine / ephedrine will remain available for sale over the counter from pharmacies is an opportunity for pharmacy to demonstrate it can confidently manage supply of these products.
The Bradford City player was found to have the banned substance Ephedrine in his system after a game against Oldham, but Cadamarteri has been adamant in protesting his innocence.
Svetlana Kuznetsova today said she was 'offended' by 'appalling allegations' that she has tested positive for ephedrine.
After the precursor phenyl-2-propanone was restricted in 1980, traffickers switched to ephedrine; when large quantities of ephedrine became harder to come by in the late '90s, they switched to pseudoephedrine.