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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



yellow-brown pigmented spots in man, varying in size from the head of a pin to a lentil, symmetrically disposed on open areas of the body. Freckles appear under the influence of the sun (usually in the spring) and sometimes from the effect of X rays and Bucky’s rays, radioactive factors, and chemical irritants. Freckles appear most often in persons with delicate white skin and fair or red hair and only rarely in brown-haired or brunette persons with dark complexions. Freckles usually appear at age 4-5 and may disappear after age 40. The formation of freckles is caused by localized increases in content of the pigment melanin in the surface layers of the skin, which is conditioned by disturbances of pigment formation arising out of disruption of the tonus of the autonomic nervous system and endocrine disturbances. Formation of freckles is often conditioned by hereditary predisposition.

Prophylaxis consists in autumn and winter in taking vitamin B complex and vitamin C internally; in spring and summer, in protecting freckled areas from the sun’s rays (wide-brimmed hats, parasols, and protective creams). Freckles are removed by peeling the surface layers of the skin by means of various ointments and alcohol solutions (on a doctor’s prescription); creams with hydroquinone and “Achromin” are recommended.


Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po dermatovenerologii, vol. 3. Moscow, 1964. Page 371.
Spravochnik po kosmetike. Edited by M. A. Rozentul. Moscow, 1964.
Astvatsaturov, K. R., and I. I. Kol’gunenko. Kosmetika dlia vsekh. Moscow, 1965.



The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.