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(invertebrate zoology)
The mayflies, an order of exopterygote insects in the subclass Pterygota.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(mayflies), an order of winged insects having two similar winged phases, the subimago and imago, which are separated by a molt. During these phases, which have a duration ranging from several seconds to several days, the insects do not feed. Some species live for only one day.

The mouthparts are vestigial, and the alimentary canal has been transformed into an air bladder. The forewings have a rich network of venation and are larger than the hind wings. Sometimes hind wings are absent. The tip of the abdomen has three segmented filaments—a pair of long, lateral cerci and one median paracercus, which is sometimes much shorter than the other two.

The mayfly undergoes incomplete metamorphosis. It has a large number of larval stages (as many as 25), and development takes place in the water for one to three years.

There are 23 widely distributed families, embracing more than 2,000 species. The USSR has 17 families, with more than 200 species. Mayflies all inhabit freshwaters, but they represent various ecological groups and have adapted to various living conditions (undergrowth, mud, rapids, soil). The larvae are food for many valuable commercial fishes, including salmon and white-fish. Ephemeropteran fossils are important in stratigraphy.


Opredelitel’ nasekomykh Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR, vol. 1, pages 110–36. Edited by G. Ia. Bei-Bienko. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
If the maker of the body imprint has been correctly identified, then the trace represents one of the first records of ephemeropterans.
The stressed habitats consisting of drifting algae in the Neva estuary were colonized by eurybiotic taxa (chironomids, oligochaetes, hirudineans), locally adapted populations of stenobiotic species of trichopterans and ephemeropterans, typical of the studied habitat, as well as some recently introduced species of amphipods (Gmelinoides fasciatus, Pontogammarus robustoides).
genera) of ephemeropterans (mayflies), plecopterans (stoneflies), and trichopterans (caddisflies) in the sample.
Total number of stomach lavages with and without specific prey items (newt conspecifics, earthworms, coleopterans, ephemeropterans) were compared before and after wildfire.
Chironomids, littoral cladocerans, littoral copepods, ephemeropterans, annelids, and amphipods were all abundant at the end of experiments.
Brachycentrid larvae were also consumed at similar levels of consumption as chironomid larvae with a peak at midafternoon (1600 h) but were more consistent in the diets throughout all time periods (14.9%-34.1%) except mid-morning (0800 h), where brachycentrid larvae were not present Slimy Sculpin preyed on other dipterans, trichopterans, and ephemeropterans throughout the day but at lower intensities.
Primary prey taxa (lepidopteran larvae, spiders, dipterans, and ephemeropterans) made up [approximately equal to]60% (range 25-82%) of the total arthropod abundance per sample.
From that size until bass became piscivorous, insect nymphs (primarily odonates and ephemeropterans) made up the majority of the diet.
Terrestrial invertebrates (22.8%) were the second ranked prey taxa consumed by common shiner, whereas trichopterans (mainly leptocerids) (22.5%) and ephemeropterans (mainly baetids) (10.3%) were important taxa in the diet of cutlip minnow.
The stygophiles can be further subdivided into three categories: the occasional hyporheic fauna, predominantly consisting of benthic insects, mainly larvae, that may spend part of their lifetime in this environment under specific circumstances like simulids; amphibites, namely species with lifecycle related to both surface and subsurface environments, mostly represented by insects like chironomids and some species of ephemeropterans; permanent hyporheos, namely species that may be present during all life stages either in benthic habitats and in ground water, like nematodes, oligochaetes, copepods, ostracods, cladocerans, tartigrades and mites (Gibert et al., 1994).