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sacred linen garment worn by the high priests of Israel. It was in two parts—one covering the back, one the front of the body to the hips—and was fastened at the shoulders by two clasps of onyx on which were engraved the 12 tribal names, six on each. The vestment was held in at the waist by a twined linen girdle of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet; on the ephod was the breastplate with the Urim and ThummimUrim and Thummim
, in the Bible, name of sacred instruments used for casting lots. The meaning of the two names is uncertain, as is the nature of the lots. They were in some way connected, however, with the ephod.
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, hung by golden chains and rings. The priest was adorned in this fashion to symbolize the presence of God with his people. The ephod was somehow used for divination. It is mentioned in numerous passages in the Bible.
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Which explains the horror of David's first wife Michal when the king forgoes the robes of office and dances before the Ark of the Covenant in nothing but a linen ephod, which is an apron.
Samuel is portrayed as an excellent servant who "was ministering before the Lord, a boy wearing a linen ephod" (1 Samuel 2:18).
He drones on for pages and pages about the tabernacle, the ark and the ephod, like a demented Bronze Age interior decorator--golden candlesticks, mind you, and ten linen curtains twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits wide, and loops around the edges, and eleven goat-hair curtains, maybe a little wider, and loops around their edges too.
The language he uses is that of becoming a priest, 'Literature is to be my vocation, it seems; verily a high one, a priesthood; but who shall dare to don the ephod or stand ministrant alone before the altar?
onix stones and sett stones for the Ephod and for the brestlappe.
Cryer's survey of Israelite divination covers dreams, the seraphim, the goral-lot, the ephod and the ark, signs, the priestly oracle, and considers the question whether the Israelites used the omen sacrifice.
David, wearing a linen ephod, danced without restraint before the Lord.
Gone are the magical rod of Moses and Aaron's priestly ephod. If all of these things once were, they are no more.
It will join the already completed ephod and choshen (breastplate), featuring the 12 precious stones associated with the 12 tribes of Israel.
Rofe points out that the LXX to Hosea 3:4 reads "and no priesthood and no Urim," as against the MT which reads "and no ephod and no teraphim," which admittedly makes no sense in the context.
18:14, 17, 18, 20 lists the terapim along with an ephod, a "graven image" (pesel), and a "molten image" (masseka); yet nowhere is terapim used as a general heading for these terms.
They had carried the priesthood of all believers to its illogical conclusions through actions that had transformed "stables into Temples, Stalls into Quires, Shopboards into Communion Tables, Tubs into Pulpits, Aprons into Linen Ephods, and Mechanics of the lowest rank into Priests of the high places." (28) Featley gratefully acknowledged that most seventeenth-century English women and men accepted their cultural location and adhered to the appropriate social boundaries.