Ephor

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ephor

 

a member of a collegium of supreme officials in Sparta, in ancient Greece. Five ephors were elected annually by the assembly of citizens.

The collegium of ephors was established in the mid-eighth century B.C The ephors convened and presided over meetings of the Gerousia (council of elders) and the Apella (popular assembly); they managed the state treasury, announced troop call-ups, appointed military commanders, and handled legal matters. The ephors supervised the activities of the kings and officials; they also watched over the behavior of citizens and of the dependent population—the Perioeci and the Helots. The ephors were the bulwark of the oligarchic regime that existed in Sparta.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"The amphora is a vessel used mainly for transporting liquids and semi-liquids in antiquity, so the goods it would be transporting were mostly wine, oil, fish sauces, perhaps honey," archaeologist and Fournoi survey project director Dr George Koutsouflakis from the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, said.
(13) Plutarch treats the ephorate as a later addition, albeit one deeply continuous with Lycurgus' constitutional reforms: 'the first ephors were appointed in the reign of Theopompus' about 'one hundred and thirty years after Lycurgus' (7.1).
He then identifies yet another 'heightened form' of social virtue in Fichte's account of the ephorate and the state official, comparing it this time with Robespierre's vertu publique.
In the fifteenth, in the forty-eighth year of the priestess-ship of Chrysis at Argos, in the ephorate of Aenesias at Sparta, in the last month but two of the archonship of Pythodorus at Athens, and six months after the battle of Potidaea, just at the beginning of spring (Thuc.
Our work has been facilitated by Metaxia Tsipopoulou, the late Nikos Papadakis, and Costis Davaras on behalf of the 24th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities.
28.1-2); to the creation of the ephorate and the honours paid to dead kings.
These remarkable findings have been made public by the Greek government after the start of a five-year collaborative project involving the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and The University of Nottingham.
We thank Xeni Arapogianni, director of the 7th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, for this information.