The hypobranchial and the ceratobranchial form the lower limb of a branchial arch and the epibranchial
forms the upper limb (Sakamoto 1984).
The feathers were clipped and plucked from the cranial intermandibular region to caudal to the epibranchial
bones, and the skin was surgically prepared.
Teeth cusps in internal premaxillary series forming an arch, with a concave frontal surface in ventral view; larger dentary teeth with more than three cusps; humeral dark brown blotch almost circular or slightly horizontally elongated; usually 7-9 gill-rakers on first epibranchial
and more than 13 on hipobranchial arch (3)
Five new species of genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 from Rio Iguacu, Parana, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae)/ Cinco novas especies do genero Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 do Rio Iguacu, Parana, Brasil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae)
34] Main axis of first epibranchial
(Costa 1998a) (CI: 1.
71), larger rakers on both epibranchial
and ceratobranchial possess a row of small, bluntly pointed crenulations along their medial surfaces (Fig.
The scarids also have a 4th epibranchial
that is easily identified.
Similarly, neurogenin-2 is an essential determination factor for the development of epibranchial
placode-derived cranial sensory ganglia.
Anterior three gill arches each of hypobranchial, ceratobranchial, epibranchial
and pharyngobranchial, fourth arch of ceratobranchial and epibranchial
, fifth arch comprising single ceratobranchial.
It becomes more superficial and rostral as it proceeds ventrally, and it ends adjacent to the deep surface of the epibranchial
placode on the dorsal and caudal aspect of the first branchial groove.
maculosa always has two proboscis pores, and has an epibranchial
ridge (Ritter, 1900).
Gill rakers externally on first gill arch, 1 in angle or associated distally on epibranchial
, 4 (7), 5 (3) on ceratobranchial.
Endostyle-like features of the dorsal epibranchial
ridge of an enteropneust and the hypothesis of dorsal-ventral axis inversion in chordates.