No clinical signs from the luxated epibranchial
bone were observed.
The cores are smaller at both ends of the gill arches, i.e., on the hypobranchial and epibranchial
bones, and the largest on the ceratobranchials.
Teeth cusps in internal premaxillary series forming an arch, with a concave frontal surface in ventral view; larger dentary teeth with more than three cusps; humeral dark brown blotch almost circular or slightly horizontally elongated; usually 7-9 gill-rakers on first epibranchial
and more than 13 on hipobranchial arch (3)
Five new species of genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 from Rio Iguacu, Parana, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae)/ Cinco novas especies do genero Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 do Rio Iguacu, Parana, Brasil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae)
(1) They are derived from different embryologic cell anlages: the epibranchial
placode of the second branchial arch and the neural crest of the facial primordium, respectively.
 Main axis of first epibranchial
(Costa 1998a) (CI: 1.00; RI: 1.00): (0) approximately straight; (1) curved.
Each gill arch is divided into a long ceratobranchial part and short epibranchial
The hyoid apparatus of the Chinese goose is composed of a single entoglossal bone, paired rostral basibranchial bones, an urohyal bone, paired ceratobranchial bones, and paired epibranchial
Gill rakers on first arch 4-5 ([bar.x] = 4.4, SD = 0.49) + 16-17-18 ([bar.x] = 16.9, SD = 0.71) = 20-21-22 (x = 21.3, SD = 0.71), larger rakers on both epibranchial
and ceratobranchial possess a row of small, bluntly pointed crenulations along their medial surfaces (Fig.
The scarids also have a 4th epibranchial
that is easily identified.
Similarly, neurogenin-2 is an essential determination factor for the development of epibranchial
placode-derived cranial sensory ganglia.
Anterior three gill arches each of hypobranchial, ceratobranchial, epibranchial
and pharyngobranchial, fourth arch of ceratobranchial and epibranchial
, fifth arch comprising single ceratobranchial.
It becomes more superficial and rostral as it proceeds ventrally, and it ends adjacent to the deep surface of the epibranchial
placode on the dorsal and caudal aspect of the first branchial groove.