The group's method of generating epicardium
cells could be useful in clinical applications, for patients who suffer a heart attack.
The Stanford scientists identified a protein, follistatin-like 1, (FSTL1) that is produced in the epicardium
in healthy hearts but went missing after a heart attack.
Mesotheliomas of peritoneum, epicardium
, and pericardium induced by strain MC29 avian leukosis virus.
D) Wavefront propagation across the ventricular epicardium
at 9 Hz pacing frequency after exposure to control media (left) or 100 [micro]M BPA for 1 min (right); arrows indicate local CVs.
These currents are manifested in the electrocardiogram as a ST segment elevation or depression, as consequence of subepicardial and subendocardial ischemia, respectively (27, 28) In subendocardial ischemia, there is a delay in subendocardial cardiac cells repolarization; in consequence repolarization proceeds as a normal condition, from the epicardium
to the endocardium, but is delayed in the ischemic subendocardial area causing a prolonged QT interval and a positive symmetrical, high and pointed T wave (28-32).
Diagnosis of a pericardial effusion was made based on a circumferential rim of pericardial effusion with pronounced separation of epicardium
nContact's Numeris(R) Coagulation System with VisiTrax(R) and next generation EPi-Sense(R) Coagulation System technology integrate suction, perfusion, and radiofrequency energy to ensure consistent cardiac tissue contact and create visible, continuous lesions on the epicardium
of a beating heart.
Modern post processing software can demarcate the borders of the endocardium and epicardium
, as shown in Fig.
Anatomical studies show that the fiber direction rotates counterclockwise from epicardium
to endocardium and that the fibers are arranged in sheets running across the myocardial wall [8, 11, 25].
In addition to the developing thoracic and abdominal buds, extensive cell proliferation is also seen in the epidermis, esophagus, and epicardium
that protrude into the buds (Fig.
The new study shows that the protein may not only protect heart cells from further injury but may also generate a few new muscle cells from stem cells in the lining, called the epicardium
Loss of sodium channel function leads to imbalance of currents during phase 1 of the cardiac action potential and a characteristic notch in regions of the epicardium
but not endocardium.