Quantification of epicuticle
wax content (i.e., removal) from treated P.
According to Subramanyam & Roesli (2000), silica dioxide is able to break the wax layer of the epicuticle
Silver staining of the gills and ultrastructural localization of silver grains in the epicuticle
, endocuticle, and apical region of the epithelial cells suggest that the gill epithelium of D.
Hair surface is known to be covered by a compact hydrophobic layer, the epicuticle
, mainly made of fatty acid chains.
Pedrini et-al.,  have thoroughly reviewed the biochemistry of insect epicuticle
degradation by enzymes secreted by entomopathogenic fungi.
The cuticle consists of three main layers: the epicuticle
, the exocuticle and the endocuticle, where the latter two layers form the procuticle.
Penetration of the epicuticle
was achieved via a narrow peg produced by an appressorium (Fig.
Fine sandy nesting substrates have the potential to abrade the waxy epicuticle
of flea larvae, increasing water loss and larval mortality (123).
The outer layer of the integument, the epicuticle
, contains a monomolecular layer of lipid (the wax layer) that is responsible for almost all the integument's resistance to water loss.
The complex bacterial community in ESD lesions has now been well described, characterized by bacteria that degrade the interstitial matrix of the epicuticle
(Smolowitz et al.
The cuticle consists of a thin outer epicuticle
containing lipids and proteins and a thick procuticle consisting mainly of chitin and proteins (Andersen et al., 1995; Samson et al., 1988).