association

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association

association, in psychology, a connection between different sensations, feelings, or ideas by virtue of their previous occurrence together in experience. The concept of association entered contemporary psychology through the empiricist philosophers John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, and David Hartley, and the British associationist school of James Mill, John Stuart Mill, and others (see associationism). Translated into the stimulus-response terms of behaviorism, association has been thought of as the basis of learning and conditioning. Paired experience and the principle of reinforcement are often invoked to explain associative learning. However, Gestalt psychologists, who believe that association between items is dependent on their relations to each other, interpret association as an aftereffect of perceptual organization. Psychoanalysis uses a technique known as free association, in which the client expresses thoughts exactly as they occur, even though they may seem irrelevant. This procedure is designed to reveal areas of conflict and to bring into consciousness traumatic events that have been repressed, the theory being that earlier thoughts and associations can be derived from current thoughts with similar patterns of association.

Bibliography

See N. J. Mackintosh, Conditioning and Associative Learning (1983).

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association

A loose group of young stars of similar spectral type. OB associations are groups of massive and highly luminous main-sequence stars of spectral types O and B. They occur in regions rich in gas and dust in the spiral arms of the Galaxy. They have dimensions ranging from a few parsecs to several hundred parsecs. Often an open cluster is found near the center of an association, e.g. the Zeta Persei association surrounds h and Chi Persei. R associations are groups of bright young stars of slightly lower mass (3–10 solar masses) that illuminate reflection nebulae. T associations are groups of T Tauri stars, i.e. young stars of about the Sun's mass. Most contain less than 30 stars though some contain as many as 400. R and T associations are often found in the vicinity of young open clusters.

Associations are generally too sparsely populated to be gravitationally bound systems and there is strong evidence that they represent the aftereffects of comparatively recent multiple star births. In some cases the stars appear to be expanding from a common center: by extrapolating back their present velocities an estimate of the age of the system can be derived. For instance, the association II Persei shows an expansion age of slightly over one million years.

Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006

association

  1. any group sharing a common purpose or interest. See also GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT.
  2. (STATISTICS) the degree to which two VARIABLES are related. See CORRELATION.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

association

[ə‚sō·sē′ā·shən]
(astronomy)
A sparsely populated grouping of very young stars that appear to have had a common origin and have not yet had time to disperse.
(chemistry)
Combination or correlation of substances or functions.
(ecology)
Major segment of a biome formed by a climax community, such as an oak-hickory forest of the deciduous forest biome.
(psychology)
A connection formed through learning.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

association

1. Psychol the mental process of linking ideas so that the recurrence of one idea automatically recalls the other
2. Chem the formation of groups of molecules and ions, esp in liquids, held together by weak chemical bonds
3. Ecology a group of similar plants that grow in a uniform environment and contain one or more dominant species
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The independence assumption is clearly unwarranted here, but this exercise illustrates that potential inaccuracies in our historical water concentration estimates may pose a far lesser threat to the validity of previously published epidemiological associations between PFOA and preeclampsia in the C8 Health Study than suggested by traditional models for exposure measurement error.
The results of the study, headed by Toshiro Tango of the National Institute of Public Health, were announced at a meeting of the Japan Epidemiological Association held at the institute.
In those instances in which epidemiological studies have concluded that a relative risk of greater than two exists at a statistically significant level, a Daubert challenge may still be appropriate, because an epidemiological association does not, in and of itself, prove causation.
The study was conducted according to the guidelines of Good Epidemiological Practice (International Epidemiological Association, 2007),14 the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (2008)15 and all local laws and regulations.
The opening of his keynote address to the International Epidemiological Association's 20th World Congress on Epidemiology in Anchorage, Alaska, in August 2014 was typical: After graciously thanking his hosts for the invitation, he looked at his notes and said he should have listened to his wife and cleaned his glasses.
Last led the initiative of the International Epidemiological Association to develop guidelines on ethical conduct of epidemiological research, practice, and teaching, was a member of the Working Group of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences that drafted International Guidelines for Ethical Review of Epidemiological Studies (1991) and has contributed substantially to other national and international discussions about ethical conduct in public health sciences and practice.

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