epinephrine


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Related to epinephrine: epinephrine reversal, racemic epinephrine

epinephrine

(ĕp'ənĕf`rīn), hormonehormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine, a catecholaminecatecholamine
, any of several compounds occurring naturally in the body that serve as hormones or as neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. The catecholamines include such compounds as epinephrine, or adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
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, together with norepinephrinenorepinephrine
, a neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family that mediates chemical communication in the sympathetic nervous system, a branch of the autonomic nervous system.
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, is secreted principally by the medulla of the adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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. Heightened secretion caused perhaps by fear or anger, will result in increased heart rate and the hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose. This reaction, often called the "fight or flight" response, prepares the body for strenuous activity. The hormone was first extracted (1901) from the adrenal glands of animals by Jokichi Takamine; it was synthesized (1904) by Friedrich Stolz. Epinephrine is used medicinally as a stimulant in cardiac arrest, as a vasoconstrictor in shock, as a bronchodilator and antispasmodic in bronchial asthma, and to lower intra-ocular pressure in the treatment of glaucoma.

Bibliography

See B. B. Hoffman, Adrenaline (2013).

Epinephrine

A hormone which is the predominant secretion from the adrenal medulla; also known as adrenalin, it has the structure shown. Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic substance; that is, it acts on tissue supplied by sympathetic nerves, and generally the effects of its action are the same as those of other nerve stimuli. Conversely, the stimulation of the splanchnic or visceral nerves will cause the rapid release of the hormone from the medullary cells of the adrenal gland. Thus, epinephrine plays an important role in preparing the organism to meet conditions of physiologic emergency.

When injected intravenously, epinephrine causes an immediate and pronounced elevation in blood pressure, which is due to the coincident stimulation of the action of the heart and the constriction of peripheral blood vessels. The chief metabolic changes following the injection of epinephrine are a rise in the basal metabolic rate and an increase of blood sugar. These effects of epinephrine are transitory. See Adrenal gland, Carbohydrate metabolism

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epinephrine

[‚ep·ə′ne·frən]
(biochemistry)
C9H13O3N A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that acts to increase blood pressure due to stimulation of heart action and constriction of peripheral blood vessels. Also known as adrenaline.
References in periodicals archive ?
Epinephrine Injection (Auto-Injector) is for immediate self (or caregiver) administration and does not take the place of emergency medical care.
demonstrated the results of early clinical trial for its investigational epinephrine nasal spray, as a potential needle-free, non-invasive, and easy-to-use alternative to intramuscular injection for the treatment of anaphylaxis.
As a result, the company believes that the ARS-1 formulation may enable people to easily deliver epinephrine in emergency situations more rapidly, and with less hesitation, at the onset of an allergic reaction, as compared to currently available epinephrine auto-injectors.
AUVI-Q[R] (epinephrine injection, USP) is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to allergens, idiopathic and exercise-induced anaphylaxis.
* Not having emergency epinephrine with students on field trips or other activities away from school.
Epinephrine reinforces the effect of local anesthetics by increasing the duration and depth of analgesia3 and is regularly incorporated for infiltration in most commercial preparations because it aids in homeostasis.4,5 Epitome of vasoconstrictor decreases the systematic toxicity of L.A and after infiltration decreases the release of local anesthetics to blood circulation.6 B.P and heart rate,7 arrhythmia,8 myocardial ischemia,9,10 increase of endogenous catecholamine,10 and hypokalemia11 were raised after administration of L.A containing epinephrine noted in previous studies.
Potential Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Epinephrine
Let's be clear; each of these devices has about two dollars worth of epinephrine in them.
12 statement that the move was undertaken to address the "urgent need for a less-expensive epinephrine autoinjector."
They could not administer epinephrine because the ObGyn did not order it.
Millions of Americans rely on epinephrine to save them when severe allergies strike, and a recent price hike by the Mylan pharmaceutical company worried - and angered -  the many patients at the mercy of the cost of EpiPens.