The danger is that one will either fall into the materialist trap of thinking that by explaining the mechanical functioning of nature we will finally explain ourselves, thus making self-consciousness and freedom epiphenomenal
, or into the idealist trap of thinking that self-consciousness is wholly self-grounding, thus making its relationship to nature of simple domination.
Hierarchy in language is created by Merge; assuming that hierarchy in other systems is created by some other operation would be multiplying theoretical elements beyond necessity: the so-called "essential properties" of Merge, combination of two elements and labeling of the resulting structure for the purposes of further computations (Reuland, 2009: 206-207) are actually epiphenomenal
What seemed to have bothered Aune were the ways that Marx seemed to be maintaining a rigid theoretical line between the core, material lives of workers that were related to their economic conditions, and the superstructure that treated ideology and rhetoric as epiphenomenal
Gibbs considers that "cultural models are not epiphenomenal
, but are presumed to do real work for individuals and collective communities in shaping what people believe, how they act, and how they speak about the world and their own experiences" (1999, p.
Meter, when it comes to politics, is epiphenomenal
Results of the study confirmed the authors' suspicions, suggesting that imagined experiences are not merely epiphenomenal
- that is, our evaluations of mental imagery bear a direct relationship to our performance on perceptual and cognitive tasks in the real world.
The inexorable result of this distinction is to "rob surface phenomena of their significance" as they become residual, epiphenomenal
Requirements for various types of analysis also appear to be epiphenomenal
Ochsner, 2002: Wager, 2008) On the face of it, these experiments suggest that our consciously felt intentions might possibly influence the activities of our brains: that our psychologically described experiential aspects, far from being the epiphenomenal
by-product of physically described brain activity, as required by nineteenth century classical physical theory, could themselves causally affect the course of brain events.
Whether treated as epiphenomenal
or superstructural, the objects of study dominating post-World War II American Studies--"myths and symbols" to use a convenient tag--hardly warranted the attention of serious scholars dealing with urgent issues of global political instability, economic crisis, war, genocide, famine and drought, and the spread of infectious diseases.
Comus and Samson limn contrasting epiphenomenal
images of that theoretical model: "where the Lady holds to an esoteric stance, expressly refusing to articulate her being, Samson expresses his being repeatedly and exoterically [because he is incarnated] with the meaning of divine selection" (94).
2) Editors Leo Panitch and Colin Leys write in the preface of the Socialist Register: Fighting Identities 2003 (London, UK: Merlin Press, 2002) about how race and other identities are not epiphenomenal