(47) The conflux of the North and South Equatorial Currents, particularly the latter, which is deflected north-westwards along the north coast of South America (the Guiana Current), diffuses into the Caribbean Basin.
(51) The Florida Current as it exits the Caribbean Basin encourages such a route as it immediately swings northwards along the coastline, merging with the Antilles and North Equatorial Currents to form the mighty Gulf Stream that continues undiminished in a north-easterly direction as far as Cape Hatteras.
3.12d) and anomalous eastward equatorial currents
Warmer waters of the Equatorial Current
, located along the Honduran, Costa Rican and Mexican coasts, are interpreted as positive anomalies (blue tones).
However, dispersal routes on such currents would cross the major South Equatorial Current which might be expected to act as a barrier to gene flow along the island chains.
Even if the South Equatorial Current did not prevent larvae moving northwest to southeast, it would at least be expected to entrain large numbers of larvae and transport them east to west or northeast to southwest.
Halpern, 1982: Long range Kelvin wave propagation of transport variations in Pacific Ocean equatorial currents
His area of research is the observation and modeling of ocean currents, including the general circulation of the North Atlantic, the Gulf Stream, and equatorial current
The barrier layer is maintained over the long term through freshening of the near-surface, warm pool by rainfall that is balanced by sporadic mixing with saltier waters transported by the South Equatorial Current
from the central tropical and subtropical Pacific.
Retroflection eddies appear to carry a significant volume of South Atlantic water northward into the North Atlantic, short-circuiting the longer route around the gyre formed by the North Equatorial Countercurrent and the North Equatorial Current
. Each eddy transports about a million cubic meters of water per second; three eddies per year account for as much as a quarter of the total northward transport in the upper limb of the thermohaline (temperature and salinity driven) circulation cell.
But Hekkala pointed out that animals that got lost at sea off the coast of Africa may well have been carried across on the westward-flowing equatorial currents